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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Chapter 6 - Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

Last updated date: 23rd Apr 2024
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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 - Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

Students of class 8 CBSE get to learn different aspects of Indian judiciary. From geography to history and civics, there are other subjects students get to learn essential aspects of the respective area. In the NCERT Solutions class 8 civics chapter 6 notes, students gain an in-depth knowledge of the criminal justice system. If you have not heard about FIR, public prosecutor and fair trial, then this you get to learn about them. These class 8 notes are available in PDF format too, making it worth downloading and learning. Type what is fair trial class 8 online, and you will find complete notes.


NCERT Solutions For Class 8


Class 8 Social Science (Social and Political Life)

Chapter Name:

Chapter 6 - Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

Content Type:

Text, Videos, Images and PDF Format

Academic Year:



English and Hindi

Available Materials:

Chapter Wise

Other Materials

  • Important Questions

  • Revision Notes

Subject experts who carry complete knowledge about the criminal justice system author these class 8 civics chapter 6 notes. When it comes to a fair trial, the Indian constitution says, every individual charged is eligible to get a fair trial. You can also access NCERT Solution for Class 8 Maths and NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science to assist you in reviewing the entire syllabus and achieving higher scores in your examinations. 

Access NCERT Solutions for Science Chapter 6 – Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

1. In a town named Peace Land, followers of the Fiesta football team discover that the Jubilee football team supporters, located about 40 km away in a nearby city, have vandalized the ground for the upcoming final match between both teams. Outraged Fiesta fans, armed with deadly weapons, assault the residences of Jubilee team supporters in the town. In the ensuing attack, 10 men lose their lives, 5 women sustain severe injuries, numerous homes are demolished, and more than 50 people are wounded. 

Now, envision yourself and your classmates as part of the criminal justice system. Initially, divide the class into the following four groups of individuals:

1. Police, 2. Public Prosecutor, 3. Defense lawyer, 4. Judge.

On the right side, there's a list of functions. Match these with the roles listed on the left. Let each group select the functions it needs to carry out to deliver justice to those affected by the violence caused by the Fiesta fans. In what sequence will these functions be executed?



Defense Lawyer

Meet the accused persons 

Public Prosecutor

Record the statements of the witnesses


Cross examine the witnesses


Take photographs of burnt homes

Pass the judgment

Conduct a fair trial 

Writes the judgment

Argue the case for the victims

Decides for how many years the accused will be put in jail

Examine the witnesses in court

Record the evidence

Get the assaulted women medically examined

Arrest the Fiesta fans 

hear the witnesses


  • Police: Gather witness statements, collect evidence, photograph damaged homes, arrest Fiesta fans, and arrange medical examinations for assaulted women.

  • Public Prosecutor: Question witnesses, cross-examine them in court, and present the case for the victims.

  • Defense Lawyer: Question witnesses, meet the accused, and cross-examine witnesses in court.

  • Judge: Listen to witnesses, write the judgment, determine the accused's sentence, and conduct a fair trial.

The police are the first responders, collecting evidence at the crime scene. Public Prosecutors and Defense Lawyers then play their roles, with the Judge making the final decision and passing the judgment. The mentioned steps are part of the post-crime legal process.

2. Consider the same scenario but assign all the responsibilities to a single student supporting the Fiesta Club. Do you believe the victims would receive justice if one person handled all aspects of the criminal justice system? Explain two reasons why different individuals must fulfill distinct roles in the criminal justice system. 

Ans: If a single individual manages all aspects of the criminal justice system, they might be influenced by various internal and external biases. Thus, a separation of powers is essential to prevent unfairness, as absolute power is seldom just. Since various tasks in an investigation and trial, like arrests, witness statements, defense, fair trial proceedings, and just judgment, cannot be carried out by one person alone, different individuals must assume distinct roles in the criminal justice system. Assigning specific roles ensures wise decision-making, situational understanding, and lawful judgments. Distributing these responsibilities among various individuals prevents potential abuse of power, upholding the rule of law and ensuring equal and just choices.

CBSE Notes Class 8 Civics Chapter 6

Understand Indian Criminal Justice System

In this class 8 civics chapter 6 notes, students will get to learn complete ideas about the Indian criminal justice system. Article 22 of the constitution, every person is eligible and has a fundamental right to get a fair trial and a lawyer. Article 39A of the constitution places the duty upon the state to provide a lawyer for the charged citizen.

When you learn what is fair trial class 8, you will learn about four key players in the criminal justice system- police, Public Prosecutor, defense lawyer, and the judge.

Role of the Police in investigating the crime

The primary role of the police in the judiciary system is to investigate the crime. The process includes recording statements of suspects and collecting evidence to send it to the forensic. This investigation will help the police to find out the real culprit rather than investigating the wrong one. Police should investigate according to the rule of law respecting human rights. There are specific guidelines set by the constitution for police, which they need to follow. The police need to register the FIR before the investigation begins. This is the standard procedure.

The FIR should contain all the details, including the date; time, and place the crime took place. These details are very crucial in the case and help the prosecutor to fight the case accordingly.

While filing the FIR, it is vital to note that there should not be any force on the victim or suspect. Moreover, police officials, while interrogating the suspect or the victim, should carry the identification. It is the standard rule, which should be followed by police officials to ensure everything is followed rightly.

Role of the Public Prosecutor

In the class 8 civics chapter 6 notes, students get to learn about the public prosecutor. He/she is the person who represents the interests of the state. The role of the prosecutor begins right after the police investigation is done and the charge sheet is filed in the court. The prosecutor has to conduct on behalf of the state and need to be highly experienced to handle criminal cases and do the homework well before presenting the case.

Role of the Judge

Judge is like an umpire, who after seeing all the evidence and how the prosecutor defends the charged person. He/she will also hear and consider the witness and proof before giving the judgment. Based on the evidence, the judge provides the hearing and final verdict. It is the job of the judge to follow the constitution rule to give a fair trial to the victim.

What is a Fair Trial?

In the civic note of chapter 6, what is a fair trial class 8 section gives a complete understanding about it. A fair trial is providing justice to the victim under Article 21 of the constitution. There are certain features of a fair trial.

The fair trial is held in open court in front of the public, accused, victim, and defense lawyers. The judge cross-examines every aspect put forward by lawyers. Defense lawyers do their best to ensure that the accused or the victim is set free. Every citizen, irrespective of caste, gender, ideology, and religion is eligible to get a fair trial. A judge has to be impartial and give judgment according to Article 21 of the Indian Constitution.

Some of the rules set in Article 22 of the Constitution towards the arrested person are-

  • The arrested person has a complete right to get informed at the time of arrest and offense for which arrest is being made.

  • Right not to be ill-treated during the arrest.

  • Confessions made in police custody are not viable as evidence against the accused.

Complete Class 8 Civics Chapter 6 Notes

Students looking for class 8 civics chapter 6 notes of the criminal justice system can download the PDF format of the same. It is easy to download and learn or practice for the exam. The online version of CBSE class 8 chapters have made things simple for students to practice for the exam.

The Benefits Students will be Getting from NCERT Solutions for Class  8 Social Chapter 6 - Understanding Our Criminal Justice System:

  • Most of the students struggle to get satisfactory results due to conceptual errors. These solutions provide guidance to these students to clarify certain confusions regarding the chapter.

  • Understanding the core concept is extremely important when it comes to Social Sciences. The questions usually look for informative as well as precise answers and NCERT Solutions for Class  8 Social Chapter 6 - Understanding Our Criminal Justice System help with that.

  • Error-free and exact answers are required to grab a decent score in Social Sciences. On top of that, maintaining good quality is quite essential if the aim is to pursue this subject in higher education. 

  • Helps students to acquire in-depth knowledge and work on time-management as well. Additionally, NCERT Solutions for Class  8 Chapter 6 - Understanding Our Criminal Justice System provide a proper strategy to improve grades. 

Maintaining quality is important, especially when the subject is Social. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Chapter 6 - Understanding Our Criminal Justice System in a way benefits students by coming up with suggestions to achieve desired results.


Delving into NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Chapter 6 - Understanding Our Criminal Justice System, provides students with a profound understanding of the intricacies within the legal framework. This comprehensive resource equips learners with insights into the functioning of our justice system, nurturing an informed perspective on its principles and operations. Through this exploration, students develop a deeper awareness of their societal roles and responsibilities, contributing to their holistic growth and fostering a sense of civic consciousness.

FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Chapter 6 - Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

1. Can an Officer Arrest the Suspect without a Warrant?

A police officer can arrest the suspect without a warrant under section 41 of the CPC under the following circumstances:

  • Committing a criminal act amounting to a cognizable offense

  • Procession of housebreaking or murder

  • Obstructing or harming police officer in the execution of his duty

2. What Does the Criminal Justice System in India Include?

The criminal justice system includes institutions/agencies and a complete process established by the government to control the crime in the country. Police, prosecutor and judge are the three components included in the CJS.

3. Why do you believe that different people need to play different roles as part of the criminal justice system?

The Police, the Public Prosecutor, the Defence Counsel, and The Judge are the four main players in the criminal justice system. Police officers make arrests and file reports. It is not, however, the job of the police to determine whether or not a person is guilty. A court of law determines whether or not a person is guilty once they have been arrested. Under the Constitution, everyone accused of a crime is entitled to a fair trial and to ensure that different people need to play different roles.

4. What is the role of the Judge in the criminal justice system according to the syllabus of Class 8?

The judge functions as an umpire in a game, ensuring that the trial is conducted fairly and openly. On the basis of the evidence submitted and in line with the law, the judge determines whether the accused individual is guilty or innocent. The judge will impose a penalty if the accused is proven guilty. He may sentence the accused to prison, fine them, or both, depending on the law.

5. What is a FIR?

FIR stands for First Information Report. According to the legislation, an official in charge of a police station is required to file an FIR anytime a person provides information regarding a cognizable offence. Orally or in writing, this information might be given to the police. The FIR normally includes the date, time, and location of the crime, as well as the fundamental facts of the crime, such as a description of the occurrences.

6. What is the role of the Public Prosecutor?

The State's interests are represented in court by the Public Prosecutor. After the police have completed their investigation and filed the chargesheet in court, the prosecutor's task begins. The Prosecutor is responsible for carrying out the prosecution on behalf of the State. As a court official, it is his or her responsibility to behave impartially and present the court with all relevant facts, witnesses, and evidence in order for the court to make a decision.

7. What are the fundamental rights of every arrested person?

Every arrested individual is guaranteed some Fundamental Rights by Article 22 of the Constitution and criminal law. They are:

  • The right to know the crime for which the individual is being arrested at the time of the arrest. 

  • The right to appear in front of a magistrate within 24 hours of being detained. 

  • The right not to be mistreated or tortured while being detained. 

  • Confessions made while the accused is in police custody are not admissible in court. 

  • Women and minors under the age of 15 cannot be summoned to the police station just to be interrogated.