STD is an abbreviated form of Sexually transmitted diseases. The meaning of STD disease is that the disease is imparted to others through sexual contact. Apart from sexual transmission, sexually transmitted diseases are also transferred to other persons in various ways. These are- breastfeeding, sharing of infected needles, etc. There are many diseases under the class of STD, and these can be cured by maintaining proper sexual health and hygiene. The mass awareness of sexually transmitted diseases is necessary for preventing them. Social media, newspapers and journals, television broadcasting, internet sources, and medical campaigning are the ways through which the transmission, symptoms, prevention, and prospective cure of STDs are conveyed to the common people. Examples of sexually transmitted diseases are- AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, etc.
As mentioned earlier, there are various diseases categorized under STDs. Sexually transmitted disease list is given as follows:
The most common and chronic sexually transmitted disease is AIDS. It is caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Generally, the immune system is completely destroyed by HIV, and thus the body becomes weak. When a person is infected by AIDS, he is susceptible to various other diseases. Direct sexual contact is the most probable way of transmission of HIV. The initial symptoms of HIV are headache, swollen lymph nodes, rashes, fever and chills, nausea. No cure for AIDS has been found so far, but effective treatment can increase the lifetime of the patient for a few years more. AIDS can be prevented by measuring protective sexual intercourse.
The bacteria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is the agent of this STD. In this disease, both males and females can be affected. The urogenital pathway, including the rectum, urethra, and cervix (in females only), are mostly affected. Gonorrhea, like other STD, is majorly transmitted through direct sexual contact. Oral and anal sex are also the ways through which gonorrhea is transmitted. The symptoms of gonorrhea are- discharge of pus from the penis, burning sensation during urination (in males), and similarly discharge of pus from vagina, pelvic or abdominal pain (in females). Gonorrhea can be prevented by protected sexual intercourse.
The bacteria, Treponema pallidum, is the causative agent of this STD. The bacteria find their path in the body through various wounds. Syphilis can also be transmitted from infected pregnant mothers to their children. The early symptoms include a sore that is termed as ‘Chancre’. The other symptoms include headache, loss of weight, fatigue, rashes, fever, etc. In the later stages, it may lead to a complete stop of mental growth, loss of vision, heart disease, etc. Syphilis can be prevented by avoiding unprotected sexual contact and other steps as taken for any STD.
HPV ( Human Papillomavirus)
As the name suggests, it is an infected viral disease. The most common symptoms include warts on the buccal cavity, throat, and on the external genitals. If left untreated, HPV may lead to other chronic diseases like cervical cancer, oral cancer, rectal cancer, etc. No treatment has been found for HPV so far.
It is caused by a bacterium named Chlamydia trachomatis. Very few symptoms are associated with this disease in the early stages. But symptoms at later stages include pain during discharge of urine, yellow discharge from penis or vagina, etc. If left untreated, these may lead to infertility and diseases causing inflammation of pelvic girdle. It may also spread from the pregnant mother to the newborn baby, causing blindness, pneumonia, and several other complications.
The full name of the virus is Herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two strains of HSV. These are HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 is the major agent of oral herpes. And HSV-2 generally causes genital herpes. The most common symptoms are sores on the places surrounding the genitals. Congenital herpes spreads from the pregnant lady to their child. Safe sexual intercourse can cure the disease.
There are various other types of sexually transmitted diseases. These are Trichomoniasis, Pubic lice, Granuloma inguinale, Chancroid, Scabies, Molluscum contagiosum.
We can further also classify STDs as curable STDs and non-curable STDs. Curable STDs are gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis, Syphilis, Pubic lice. Whereas non-curable STDs are Herpes, AIDS, HPV.
The best possible way to prevent STD is by avoiding direct sexual intercourse. Proper use of protective measures like condoms or the diaphragm may reduce the risk of contamination. Screening for STD is also another effective way. One may consult the physician at the initial level of the appearance of the symptoms to prevent chronic infection by the disease.
1. Name two Sexually Transmitted Diseases?
Ans: Two names of sexually transmitted diseases are AIDS and Syphilis. The former one is caused by the HIV virus, while the latter one is caused by a bacterium named Treponema pallidum. AIDS is a chronic STD that may lead to death, but Syphilis can be cured by proper treatment. AIDS generally affects the immune system of the body, which further affects the other organs and makes the body vulnerable to other diseases. On the other hand, Syphilis is restricted to the genital organs. But both are categorized under STD, and prevention of them is quite similar that is by avoiding direct sexual intercourse.
2. What are the ways by which STD is prevented?
Ans: We can adopt certain preventive measures before sexual contact. These are taking vaccines for Hepatitis B and HPV, avoiding sex after getting intoxicated, avoiding multiple partners without knowing the history of partners. Other ways include the usage of dental dams during oral sex, usage of male and female condoms during intercourse, and usage of the diaphragm. These ways can prevent us from STDs. Awareness of STDs is also important and so, it is important to know the sexually transmitted diseases definition and the various types of sexually transmitted diseases.