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Difference Between Monocotyledon and Dicotyledon

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Definition and Difference Between Monocotyledon and Dicotyledon

Plants may be divided generally into flowering plants and non-flowering plants. Flowering plants are called angiosperms while gymnosperms are classified as non-flowering plants. Angiosperms are further categorized into monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants based on the presence of the embryo in the seed.

 

What is Monocotyledon?

Monocotyledons (Liliopsida) are a flowering plant class that includes more than 75,000 species. Mostly, they are herbaceous. The class name derives from the seed structure, which has one cotyledon, with a terminal position.

 

Monocotyledon seeds possess well-developed endosperm. It usually stores starch and proteins, which are necessary to the plant's initial growth. The monocotyledon seed germination is typically hypogeal.

 

The monocotyledon leaves are simple, with isobilateral symmetry. They have straight veins, smooth edges, and a long sheath, which covers the stem mostly. The stomata are distributed fairly over both leaf surfaces.

 

There is no development of the main root so the root system is adventitious.

 

The stem may be hollow or solid. The vascular bundles are dispersed all over the stem. The stems and roots have no cambium and are unable to enlarge by diameter. Some of the examples of monocot plants are wheat, banana, garlic, onion, lilies, and daffodils. 

 

What is Dicotyledon?

Dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida) are a class of flowering plants, containing more than 175,000 species of plants – from annual plants to trees. The dicotyledons differ in the presence of two lateral cotyledons in each seed.

 

Starch, fats, or proteins are stored in the cotyledons and are used for the growth of the plant before photosynthesis starts. The dicotyledon seed germination is hypogeal or epigeal.

 

Simple or Complex, the leaves have dorsiventral symmetry. They have a net or reticulate venation, and are often jagged or dissected with irregular edges. The stomata are located on the leaves downside. The Taproot system is seen in dicotyledons.

 

The stems are solid. Vascular bundles in the stems are smaller than in the monocotyledons and are (concentrically) placed in rings. Some of the examples of dicot plants are carrots, almonds, peas, radish, bell pepper, etc.

 

Monocotyledon and Dicotyledon Examples

  • Monocotyledon: Palm trees, paddy, maize, banana, orchids, etc.

  • Dicotyledon: Apple tree, tomato, roses, sunflower, begonias, oak, maple, etc.

 

Difference Between Monocotyledon and Dicotyledon

There are various characteristics to distinguish between dicotyledon and monocotyledon. They are:

Various Characteristics To Distinguish Between Dicotyledon and Monocotyledon

Characteristic

Monocotyledon

Dicotyledon

Growth

Herbaceous

Herbaceous or arboraceous

Cotyledon

Have one terminal cotyledon

Have two lateral cotyledons

Seed Germination

Hypogeal

Epigeal or hypogeal

Leaves

• Simple

• Isobilateral symmetry

• Parallel veins

• Smooth edge

• Stem is covered by a long sheath

• On both surfaces, stomata are distributed equally

• Simple or complex

• Dorsiventral symmetry

• Net or reticulate venation

• Uneven edges, jagged or dissected

• Stomata - down the surface of the leaves


Stems

• Cambium is absent

• Unable to enlarge in diameter

• Hollow or solid

• Vascular bundles are dispersed all over the stem

• Cambium is present

• Can enlarge in diameter

• They are solid

• Vascular bundles are located in rings (concentrically)

Root and Root system

• The main root is not developed

• Root system is adventitious

• Cambium is absent and cannot enlarge in diameter

• Tap root system

• Cambium is present and can enlarge in diameter

Flowers

Trimerous

Tetramerous; pentamerous

Embryo

One endosperm is seen

Two endosperm or absent

 

Key Points:

  • Dicotyledonous meaning: Plants with just one cotyledon in the seed are called monocots, and the plant is called monocotyledons.

  • Monocotyledon meaning: Plants with two cotyledons in the seed are called dicots and plants are called dicotyledons.

  • The name of the class comes from the structure of the seeds, which have one cotyledon, with a terminal position. 

  • The leaves of monocotyledons are with isobilateral symmetry. 

  • They have parallel veins, smooth edges, and a long sheath, always covering the stem. 

  • The number of individual parts of the flowers is equal to or multiple to three.

  • The seeds of monocotyledons have well-developed endosperm. 

  • The taproot system is seen in dicotyledons the number of individual flower pieces is equal to or multiplied by four or five.

  • Dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida) are a class of flowering plants, containing more than 175,000 species of plants – from annual plants to trees. 

  • The Dicotyledon seed germination is hypogeal or epigeal. The leaves have dorsiventral symmetry and are either simple or complex.

  • Starch, fats, or proteins are stored in the cotyledons and are used for the growth of the plant before photosynthesis starts.

  • The dicotyledons differ in the presence of two lateral cotyledons in each seed. 

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FAQs on Difference Between Monocotyledon and Dicotyledon

1. What are the similarities between monocots and dicots?

The entire plant kingdom is so diverse yet, can be divided into angiosperms and gymnosperms based on their flowering traits. Angiosperms are flowering plants that are further divided into monocots and dicots based on their seed leaf pattern. Monocots have long, narrow leaves with parallel veins (like grasses) arranging the parts of monocot flowers in threes or multiples of three. Dicots with branched veins have broad leaves. The parts of the dicot flowers are arranged in fours and fives or fours and fives multiples.

2. What are the characteristics of monocotyledons?

Monocot plants have single-cotyledon seeds and parallel-veined leaves, widespread vascular bundles in the stem, the lack of a typical cambium, and an adventitious root system. Some of the examples of monocot plants are banana, wheat, grass, daffodils, garlic, etc. 

3. How do you identify a monocot?

If your plant is flowering, you can tell if the number of petals and other parts of the flora is a monocot or dicot. As seen in the flowers to the left, monocots have flower sections in threes or multiples of threes. The root system in monocot plants is fibrous. Monocots have a single seed leaf. With all these characteristics, one can say whether a plant is a monocot or a dicot. 

4. What are the characteristics of dicotyledons?

 Dicot plants are characterized by:

  • They have two seeded leaves from the embryo stage 

  • They have a taproot system and a reticulate or net venation which makes the leaf look like a woven net.

  • Cambium is an important tissue of the plant that is present in the stem of a plant. Unlike a monocot, the dicots have the cambium tissue which helps in the growth of the plant’s diameter in the stem and root system.