Darwin’s Contribution - The Evolution Theory

Charles Darwin, an English naturalist of the 19th century made an in depth study of nature for over 20 years. He made his observations on animal distribution and therefore could also study the relationship between living and extinct animals and as a result, found that these living animals share similar traits. The traits are not only the same between them but also with the opposite species that existed many years ago and among which some became extinct. 

Charles Darwin is recognized as the Father of Evolution because of his contribution to the establishment of the idea of evolution. His theory helped in removing all the traditional old beliefs which said that the formation of varied species was a supernatural phenomenon or act of the Almighty. Darwin’s evolutionary theory of survival gave a more rational explanation of the formation of the latest species. As per survival , various species originated from one species as a results of adaptation to the changing environment.

The Theory of Evolution

Darwin Darwin had the subsequent ideas regarding the idea of natural selection:

  • Species keep on evolving or changing with time. As the environment changes, the requirements of an organism also change and they adapt to the new environment. This phenomenon of adjusting over a period of your time as per the natural requirements is named adaptation..

  • As per Darwin’s theory, only the upper changes are naturally selected and therefore the lower ones are eliminated. Thus, a progressive evolution can not be expected from all the adaptations. For example, people living in tropical countries have more melanin in their body to guard them from the daylight. 

  • Almost all organisms share common ancestry with some organisms. As per Charles Darwin’s theory, all organisms had one common ancestor at some point in time and kept on diverging ever since. His theories that were evolutionary  supported the convergent theory and divergent theory of evolution along with the examples.

  • He also studied that the birds of Galapagos Island (Darwin’s finches) developed different beaks as per the supply of the food. This proved adaptive radiation. Similarly, he also observed the Australian Marsupials which showed a number of marsupials emerging from an ancestor.

  • According to Darwin , evolution may be a very slow and gradual process. He concluded that evolution happened over a really long period of your time . As we mention the period of time in evolution we usually ask billions of years. The generation of a species from another takes an extended period of your time . It is a really steady process because the changes and adaptation take an extended time to stabilize and provide rise to a replacement species.

Natural Selection Takes Place in Four Alternative Ways as Follows:

  • Variation – The changes accumulated over a period of time in an organism usually gives rise to a new species.

  • Inheritance – It is the passing on of the variations over generations which ultimately leads to speciation.

  • A High Rate of Growth of Population – This gives rise to more number of organisms being reproduced by a species than the environment can support which might lead to the extinction of that particular species.

  • Differential Survival and Reproduction – The superior variations cause survival of a specific organism and therefore the inferior or negative variation results in extinction. The superior variations are those inherited during reproduction.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Why is Charles Darwin Regarded as the Father of Evolution?

Ans - Charles Darwin is recognized as the Father of Evolution because of his contribution to the establishment of the idea of evolution. His theory helped in removing all the traditional old beliefs which said that the formation of varied species was a supernatural phenomenon or act of the Almighty. Darwin’s evolutionary theory of survival gave a more rational explanation of the formation of the latest species. As per survival , various species originated from one species as a results of adaptation to the changing environment.

Q2. How does Natural Selection in Organisms Take Place? 

Ans - Natural Selection Takes Place in Four Alternative Ways as Follows:- 

  • Variation – The changes accumulated over a period of time in an organism usually gives rise to a new species.

  • Inheritance – It is the passing on of the variations over generations which ultimately leads to speciation.

  • A High Rate of Growth of Population – This gives rise to more number of organisms being reproduced by a species than the environment can support which might lead to the extinction of that particular species.

  • Differential Survival and Reproduction – The superior variations cause survival of a specific organism and therefore the inferior or negative variation results in extinction. The superior variations are those inherited during reproduction.