Color blindness is a genetic condition, also known as color deficiency. It occurs when a person cannot see and distinguish colors in a normal way. This problem generally occurs in the case of red, blue, and green color. Rods and cones are two types of cells in the retina. These are responsible for detecting lights. Color is detected by the cone cell. The absence of one or more color in the cone cells can cause color blindness. One can have color blindness from birth and also can get it in life. It also can cause due to inheritance. This is found in men more than women.
There are three types of color blindness, these are red-green color-blindness, blue-yellow color blindness, and complete color blindness.
Red-Green Color Blindness- In this kind of blindness, people cannot distinguish between red, orange, brown, and green color. It doesn't mean that one will only mix the red and green color but also the colors which have some traces of red or green color. It is the most common type of color blindness.
Blue-Yellow Color Blindness- This kind of blindness is caused due to the absence or weakness of shortwave cones. This affects the ability to distinguish blues and yellows from green and violet respectively.
Total Color Blindness- It is also known as monochromacy. It is caused by the absence of two or three pigmented retinal cones. People with this disorder are called monochromats. Only black, white, and grey colors can be seen by them.
It is mostly caused due to inheritance. It usually comes from parents. The X chromosome carries the gene which is responsible for color blindness. Due to this, men get more affected.
But some severe accidents, illness, and medication can also cause color blindness. The healthy eye retina of humans consists of rod and cone cells. So if these cells fail to perform then it leads to color blindness. If a person’s eyes have no cones or only one cone, it causes monochromacy.
Dichromacy is caused if one type of cone is missing. When all cones are present but not aligned, it causes anomalous trichromacy in these cases.
Generally, parents observe the symptoms of color blindness in their children at a very young age. People find difficulty in distinguishing colors and this is the common symptom of color blindness. Some have the inability to see tones of the same color, and some suffer from rapid eye movement. A feeling of sensitivity can also occur if one looks at the side of bright light. Other than this, some cannot identify shade colors other than grey, black, and white and this is considered to be a major symptom.
In some cases, people who have color blindness, cannot even notice this because the symptoms of this syndrome are too slight.
To measure the color blindness in people there are some diagnoses available for them. These tests include the Ishihara plate test and screen testing.
Ishihara Plate Testing- It is considered to be the most common color vision screening. It is a well-known process that is used in schools and also in eye clinics. In this test, a circle is created with two colored irregular dots. Here, the total plate is 38. In this process, patients have to find the total number on the plates
Screen Testing- It determines the types of color blindness one is having. The severity of the syndrome is detected by this testing.
To date, no kind of cure is invented for color blindness. One can use glasses or contact lenses that are available with filters, and it helps in curing color deficiencies if necessary. In daily life, people with red and green color blindness can face a few problems like choosing fresh vegetables, fruits, etc.
Most color-blind people’s vision is normal; all they require is a certain adaptation. People who have this syndrome can follow a properly balanced diet.
1.Is color-blindness common?
Approximately one in twelve men can be affected by color deficiency and in the case of women, the number is one in two hundred women. Worldwide, three hundred million have color blindness. The majority of people inherit color-blindness and some become colorblind in their lifetime due to diseases like diabetes, accidents, etc. Red-green color-blindness is the most common type of it. It really doesn't create any problem in a clear vision for most people.
A survey says that color blindness is seen in less than 2% in African- Americans, 6% of Caucasian boys, 3% of Asian and Hispanic boys.
2. How can I pass the Ishihara test?
The Ishihara test is one of the famous tests to check color deficiency syndrome. This is mainly used for people who are officers, pilots because they need perfection in distinguishing colors. The suggestion is to not cheat in these kinds of tests due to which the real requirement could not be found. During a doctor's examination, a patient should exhibit what he exactly can see. This will help the doctor to find the area of the problem. Other than this, one can challenge the effectiveness of this test by saying that the lantern color blindness method is more realistic than it.