Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years Class 7 Notes CBSE History Chapter 1 [Free PDF Download]

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Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years Class 7 Notes History Chapter 1 - PDF Download

It is said that the entire context with which information is created tends to change along with the passage of time. So, what if that is the case, what about meaning and language? There are certain historical records that are written in different languages and have considerably changed over the course of time. For example, Modern Persian is very much different from Medieval Persian. It is not just about vocabulary and grammar. All the changes made over the course of 1000 years are described below.

 

Important Topics Covered in the Chapter

The chapter named Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years is the first chapter of the book Our Pasts-2. Here is the list of important topics discussed in this chapter.

  • New and old terminologies

  • Historians and their sources

  • New social and political group

  • Region and empire

  • Old and new religions

  • Thinking about time and historical periods

All the topics are discussed in detail below.

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New and Old Terminologies

The terms and meaning of words change over time. For example, “Hindustan” today means “India”, a country, whereas in the thirteenth century, Minhaj-i-Siraj, a chronicler who wrote in Persian, used it to refer to the areas of Punjab, Haryana, and the lands between the Ganga and Yamuna.


Historians and their Sources

  • Coins, inscriptions, architecture, and textual records are used to gather information about the past.

  • People gradually started writing holy texts, chronicles of rulers, letters and teachings of saints, petitions and judicial records, and registers of accounts and taxes.

  • Manuscripts were written and collected by wealthy people, rulers, monasteries, and temples. They were also placed in temples in monasteries. These contained a lot of detailed information. Since these were handwritten, they were difficult to comprehend.

  • There were no printing presses and the texts were copied by hand which led to slight changes in them over time. Since the authentic writer couldn’t be found, the disparities continued. As a result, historians have to read different manuscript versions of the same text to guess what the author had originally written.

  • A fourteenth-century chronicler, Ziauddin Barani, wrote his chronicle first in 1356 and another two years later. The two differ from each other but historians did not know about the existence of the first version until the 1960s. It remained lost in large library collections.


New Social and Political Groups

  • There were various changes that happened between 700 and 1750 at different moments in this period. New technologies made their appearances like the Persian wheel in irrigation, the spinning wheel in weaving, and firearms in combat.

  • The Nastaliq style (on the left) is cursive and easy to read, the Shikaste (on the right) is denser and more difficult. 

  • Potatoes, corn, chillies, tea, and coffee were new food items that arrived in the subcontinent. New people brought new ideas with them and brought a lot of economic, political, social, and cultural changes.

  • Rajputra or Rajputs were Kshatriyas who claimed ruler status. They had a chivalric code of conduct, extreme valour, and a great sense of loyalty.

  • Marathas, Sikhs, Jats, Ahoms, and Kayasthas (a caste of scribes and secretaries) also used the opportunities of the age to become politically important.

  • Ranks were not fixed permanently and varied according to the power, influence, and resources and from area to area. 

  • Jatis framed their own rules and regulations to manage the conduct of their members. These regulations were enforced by an assembly of elders, described in some areas as the jati panchayat. But jatis were also required to follow the rules of their villages. Several villages were governed by a chieftain. 


Region and Empire

  • Around 700 many regions already possessed distinct geographical dimensions and their own language and cultural characteristics.

  • There was considerable conflict between these states and occasionally dynasties like the Cholas, Khaljis, Tughlaqs, and Mughals were able to build an empire that was pan-regional but not all these empires were equally stable or successful.

  • Across the subcontinent, there were small and big states that ruled over them and these led to the emergence of distinct and shared traditions: in the realms of governance, the management of the economy, elite cultures, and language.

  • These regions felt the impact of larger pan-regional forces of integration without ever quite losing their distinctiveness.


Old and New Religions

  • People’s trust in spirituality was personal but the ideas were also communal. The belief in religion changed over time as the social and economic organisations of local communities changed over time.

  • During this period, Hinduism saw a change in the way the religion operated. These included the worship of new deities, the construction of temples by royalty, and the growing importance of Brahmanas, the priests, as dominant groups in society.

  • Their knowledge of Sanskrit texts earned the Brahmanas a lot of respect in society and they were provided with a lot of support from the rulers too. These led to the development of the bhakti movement. 

  • New religions appeared in the subcontinent. The merchants and migrants first brought the teachings of the Holy Quran to India in the seventh century. Muslims regard the Quran as their holy book and accept the sovereignty of the one God, Allah, whose love, mercy, and bounty embrace all those who believe in Him, without regard to social background.

  • And like Hinduism, Islam was interpreted in a variety of ways by its followers. There were other important differences between the various schools of law (Hanafi and Shafi’i mainly in India), and in theology and mystic traditions.


Thinking About Time and Historical Periods

  • In the middle of the nineteenth-century British historians divided the history of India into three periods: 

  1. Hindu

  2. Muslim 

  3. British

  • The division was vaguely based on the religion of the major rulers and there was no other significant basis taken for this categorization and also ignored the rich diversity of the subcontinent.

  • The mediaeval period talks about hunter-gatherers, early farmers, people living in towns and villages, and early empires and kingdoms. 

  • The “mediaeval” period contrasts with the “modern” period. “Modernity” carries with it a sense of material progress and intellectual advancement. 


Understanding New Terminologies and Old Ones

The meaning provided for some words tends to change over time. For example, Hindustan was the term used for denoting India in the 13th century. This was a term which was used in a certain political sense for all the lands which were a part of the rule under the Delhi Sultan. However, there was some shifting in those areas during the change of the Sultanate. During the beginning of the 16th century, Hindustan was a term used by Babur to portray the certain culture, geography, and fauna of the subcontinent and the inhabitants there. So, we can see how the words can change meaning over time by tracing changes through a thousand years.


Let us look at more examples. ‘Foreigner’ is a term that is used by people to denote those who are not Indian. However, during mediaeval times, this word was used for describing any particular stranger who would appear at a particular location. A person who didn’t belong to the culture and society of a particular village would also be deemed a foreigner. Hence, words having more than one meaning are not really a new thing.


Different Sources Used by Historians

In the tracing changes Through a Thousand Years Class 7 lesson plan, there is also a mention of the historians as well as the different sources they used in order to gain more information about their past. There were some details about the study period and the investigation method that they used. Certain elements such as architecture, inscriptions, coins, as well as certain textual records would provide information regarding all these. Paper became cheaper and cheaper during the periods and it was used for writing certain chronicles of the rulers, holy texts, teachings, and so much more. Apart from that, acquiring the different manuscripts which were a possession of rulers, aristocrats, and monasteries would also provide more information to the historians.


According to the Class 7 History Chapter 1, there were no printing presses during that time and hence people had to copy every manuscript by hand. So, there were some changes made from time to time. So, the manuscripts containing the same texts would definitely appear to be different from one another.


Changes in The Old and New Socio-Political Groups

The study revolving around 1000 years would be a little difficult for sure. There were a lot of changes and developments during the time. The creation of new technologies came along. For example, the creation of the Persian wheel became a pivotal part of irrigation. Not to mention that the spinning wheel was created to lend a hand in weaving. Also, there were firearms created in order to aid in combat. Along with that, there were some changes made to the food as well as the beverage system with the addition of new foods from the subcontinent. Production of potatoes, coffee, chillies, corn, and tea came into existence.


This was a period of proper mobility as well. Since most people began travelling for opportunities in cultivation and production. This resulted in a change of habitat too. Forests were cleared for agriculture and more purposes. People began sorting themselves into groups such as priests, chieftains, and so much more. Monasteries, markets, and temples came into existence. This also led to a socio-political divide between the people.


Formation of Regions and Religions

There were some larger states belonging to Tuglugs, Cholas, and the Mughals consisting of different regions. Hence, these regions had their very own culture and language which were comparatively specific to the dynasties that ruled them. With time, there were also some changes in religious traditions too. There was a collective faith in a particular supernatural agency which came to be known as religion. This would connect most social as well as economical organisations to form communities in the local areas in the best way. 


With the alterations in the social groups, there were some changes made in the beliefs as well which included changes in Hinduism and their worship of different deities. Hence, such changes can be seen quite frequently over the years. With time, there were many changes occurring in every part of the world and these changes will continue to happen.


Important Questions and Answers

1. Who was known as a foreigner in the past?

Ans: A person who didn't belong to the same society or community was considered a foreigner in the mediaeval period. For example, a person who is not a part of the village would be considered an outsider.


2. What are the major religious developments that happened during this period?

Ans: Some major religious developments were:

  • People’s trust in spirituality was personal but the ideas were also communal. The belief in religion changed over time as the social and economic organisations of local communities changed over time.

  • During this period, Hinduism saw a change in the way the religion operated. These included the worship of new deities, the construction of temples by royalty, and the growing importance of Brahmanas, the priests, as dominant groups in society.

  • Their knowledge of Sanskrit texts earned the Brahmanas a lot of respect in society and they were provided with a lot of support from the rulers too. These led to the development of the bhakti movement. 

  • New religions appeared in the subcontinent. The merchants and migrants first brought the teachings of the Holy Quran to India in the seventh century. Muslims regard the Quran as their holy book and accept the sovereignty of the one God, Allah, whose love, mercy, and bounty embrace all those who believe in Him, without regard to social background.

  • And like Hinduism, Islam was interpreted in a variety of ways by its followers. There were other important differences between the various schools of law (Hanafi and Shafi’i mainly in India), and in theology and mystic traditions.


3. What was the meaning of the word Hindustan over the centuries?

Ans: The terms and meaning of words change over time. For example, “Hindustan”, today means “India”, a country, whereas in the thirteenth century, Minhaj-i-Siraj, a chronicler who wrote in Persian, used it to refer to the areas of Punjab, Haryana, and the lands between the Ganga and Yamuna.


4. What are the sources that were used by the historians to study the past?

Ans: The following were the sources used by the historians:

  • Coins, inscriptions, architecture, and textual records are used to gather information about the past.

  • People gradually started writing holy texts, chronicles of rulers, letters and teachings of saints, petitions and judicial records, and registers of accounts and taxes.

  • Manuscripts were written and collected by wealthy people, rulers, monasteries, and temples. They were also placed in temples in monasteries. These contained a lot of detailed information. Since these were handwritten, they were difficult to comprehend.

  • There were no printing presses and the texts were copied by hand which led to slight changes in them over time. Since the authentic writer couldn’t be found, the disparities continued. As a result, historians have to read different manuscript versions of the same text to guess what the author had originally written.

  • A fourteenth-century chronicler, Ziyauddin Barani, wrote his chronicle first in 1356 and another two years later. The two differ from each other but historians did not know about the existence of the first version until the 1960s. It remained lost in large library collections.


5. What were the new technological things and advancements that happened during those thousand years?

Ans: The following were the changes that were made during thousand years:

  • There were various changes that happened between 700 and 1750 at different moments in this period. New technologies made their appearances like the Persian wheel in irrigation, the spinning wheel in weaving, and firearms in combat.

  • The Nastaliq style (on the left) is cursive and easy to read, the Shikaste (on the right) is denser and more difficult. 

  • Potatoes, corn, chillies, tea, and coffee were new food items that arrived in the subcontinent. New people brought new ideas with them and brought a lot of economic, political, social, and cultural changes.


6.  What do you mean by the term Rajput? Name the groups that became important in a thousand years.

Ans: Rajputra or Rajputs were Kshatriyas who claimed ruler status. They had a chivalric code of conduct, extreme valour, and a great sense of loyalty.

Marathas, Sikhs, Jats, Ahoms, and Kayasthas (a caste of scribes and secretaries) also used the opportunities of the age to become politically important.

Ranks were not fixed permanently and varied according to the power, influence, and resources and from area to area. 


7. How were the people grouped into jatis and describe how they were regulated?

Ans: Jatis framed their own rules and regulations to manage the conduct of their members. These regulations were enforced by an assembly of elders, described in some areas as the jati panchayat. But jatis were also required to follow the rules of their villages. Several villages were governed by a chieftain. 


8. Which religion came to India during the period between 700 and 1750 AD?

Ans: New religions appeared in the subcontinent. The merchants and migrants first brought the teachings of the Holy Quran to India in the seventh century. Muslims regard the Quran as their holy book and accept the sovereignty of the one God, Allah, whose love, mercy, and bounty embrace all those who believe in Him, without regard to social background. And like Hinduism, Islam was interpreted in a variety of ways by its followers. There were other important differences between the various schools of law (Hanafi and Shafi’i mainly in India), and in theology and mystic traditions.


Benefits of Revision Notes of Chapter 1 Our Pasts-2

Chapter 1 Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years of the book Our Pasts-2 is the fundamental chapter of the book. It gives you insight into our pasts. For quick revision, we have provided the revision notes which will be very beneficial for the students in the following ways:

  • These revision notes are provided by subject experts and proficient academicians. 

  • These revision notes include all the topics covered in the chapter so that the students can revise the complete chapter even on the night before the exam.

  • These revision notes are written in concise and easy-to-understand language. 

  • These revision notes are provided in PDF format as well. So, the students can download it anytime and anywhere. 

  • These revision notes include some important questions related to the chapter along with detailed answers. 


Chapterwise Solutions for Class 7 Notes CBSE History

Chapter 2 - New Kings and Kingdoms

Chapter 3 - Delhi Sultans

Chapter 4 - The Mughal Empire

Chapter 5 - Rulers and Buildings

Chapter 6 - Towns, Traders and Craftsperson

Chapter 7 - Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities

Chapter 8 - Devotional Paths To The Divine

Chapter 9 - The Making of Regional Cultures

Chapter 10 - Eighteenth-Century Political Formation


Students can easily download the revision notes of the chapter Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years in PDF format from the official website of Vedantu. Students can also get the revision notes of other chapters as well from our website along with NCERT solutions for all the chapters.


Also, students can access other subjects' NCERT solutions and revision notes on our website. They can also access practice papers for their preparation and ace the exam.

FAQs on Tracing Changes Through a Thousand Years Class 7 Notes CBSE History Chapter 1 [Free PDF Download]

1. What Precautions were Followed by the Historians While they Read the Maps?

Historians needed to be sensitive about certain contents while reading the maps. They needed to keep the various historical backgrounds in mind.

2. Is There a Change in the Information Provided by Certain Historical Records with Time?

There are so many different historical records written in different languages. For example, there is a certain difference between Mediaeval Persian and Modern Persian which can alter the historical records.

3. What Sources did the Historians Use for Studying the Past?

Many sources were used by the historians for the study of the past such as textual records. Most of these sources would depend on nature and the period of study.

4. What was the result when the Mughal Empire declined in the 18th century?

Following were results when Mughal Empire declined in the 18th century:

  • There was the reemergence of the regional states due to the decline of the Mughal Empire in the 18th century.

  • The character of the regions got altered during the years of imperial and pan-regional rule.

  • The small and bid states ruled over the regions with their legacies.

  • The culture, economy, management, language, etc of the regions were changed.

  • There was no growth in the development of the regions between the years 700 and 1750 A.D.

5. What was the new religion that came to India between the period of 7000 and 1750 A.D.?

New religions were introduced during the time between 700 and 1750 A.D. The teachings of the holy book Quran were brought to India by migrants and merchants in the 17th century as most of the rulers were patrons of Jurists, Islam and theologians.

  • The Quran is considered the holy book of Muslims.

  • According to Shia Muslims, the leader of the Muslim community was the prophet's son-in-law, Ali.

  • The authority of the Khalifa community was accepted by the Sunni Muslims.

  • Shafi and Hanafi were the law schools in India.

6. List some of the changes that occurred between the years of 700 and 1750 A.D?

The changes that took place between the years of 700 and 1750 A.D. are:

  • There was a gradual increase in deforestation and agriculture was extended throughout the years between 700 and 1750 A.D.

  • As the habitat changed, many forest-dwellers migrated from one place to another.

  • Temples, priests, markets, monasteries, etc were told to offer services and pay tax to local lords.

These were part of large societies. Due to this, there was a great difference in social and economical status between the peasants. To know more about this chapter, visit the page NCERT notes For Class 7 Social Science and download the revision notes free of cost.

7. In what ways did historians divide Indian History into three periods?

As time passed, changes were seen in economic and social organisations and also in the beliefs and ideas of the people. People can easily study these changes as they divide the past into periods.


British historians divided Indian history into three periods in the middle of the 19th century.

  • These periods were British, Hindu and Muslim.

  • The division was done based on the religion of the rulers and the developments done in the field of culture, economy or society.

8. Name the topics that are covered in History Chapter 1 of Class 7 Social Science?

Following are the topics included in History Chapter 1 of Class 7 Social Science: 

  • Introduction

  • Old and New Terminologies

  • Historians and their Sources

  • New Political and Social Groups

  • Empire and Region

  • New and Old Religions

  • Thinking About Historical Periods and Time

The above-mentioned topics are well explained in the NCERT book of Class 7 Social Science. Students can refer to this book to understand this chapter. By solving the NCERT questions they can comprehend the topics in a better way. To get notes and important questions from this chapter, students can download the vedantu app.

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