CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 5 Notes - Rulers and Buildings

Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Notes History Chapter 5 - PDF Download

Every piece of architecture has its history. Back in the days of rulers, the building was built by extremely skilled craftspersons, and it took them over years of hard work to create the architectural masterpiece. 

The students can easily learn more about this aspect from the rulers and buildings class 7 notes. We provide the  Class 7 Social Science Chapter 5 rulers and building notes in a comprehensive format making it easier for the students to complete their revision quickly.

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Introduction:

Monuments and buildings were a testament to a particular ruler's reign, wealth, and power. Throughout history, many great rulers have constructed monuments, temples, mosques that still stand firm. Even in medieval times, the construction and architectural techniques were ahead of their time. They serve as an inspiration to many in modern times.

Engineering skills and construction of monuments give a comprehension of the strategies utilized for development. Between the seventh and tenth-century time frame, draftsmen added more windows, entryways, and rooms to the structures. Rooftops, windows, and entryways were developed by putting a flat pillar across two vertical sections. This style of engineering was called corbelled. It was used in the development of sanctuaries and mosques. There were mainly two technologies and stylistic advancements in the 12th century, called acuate architectural forms. These advancements use limestone and stone chips mixture to fasten the construction process. The integration of Indian-style architectural structure with a Persian style of architectural form was very prominent during this time.


 Buildings, Temples, Mosques, and Tanks

  • Temples and Mosques were elegantly constructed as they were a place of worship and meant to illustrate devotion, wealth, and power.

  • Kings undertook the construction of enormous temples. 

  • The lesser series in the temple were goddesses and gods of allies and the ruler's subordinates. 

  • With the establishment of new dynasties, each ruler wanted to ascertain their moral right to be rulers.

  • The Sultan was described as the 'Shadow of God' in the Persian Court. 

  • Rulers constructed reservoirs and tanks for the welfare of ordinary people.


Why were the Temples destroyed?

Since the temples represented the wealth and power of kings, invaders targeted them when they attacked kingdoms.

Rajendra I, a remarkable Chola King, created a Shiva Temple in the 11th Century. The temple was filled with prized statuettes from the rulers he defeated.


Gardens, Tombs, and Forts

Under the Mughals' reign, architecture became more elegant and complex; Jahangir, Akbar, Shah Jahan, Humayun, and Babur used to take a keen interest in architecture, art, and literature. 

Babur built the Chahar Gardens in Kabul. They were also constructed in Agra, Kashmir, and Delhi by Jehangir, Akbar, and Shah Jahan.

The accurate representation of Akbar's architectural form is evident in his father's (Humayun) tomb. 

The ceremonial halls for both private and public audiences were known as diwan-i-am and diwan-iKhas. They were carefully planned and constructed.

Shah Jahan adopted the Chahar Bagh technique for Taj Mahal Layout, considered his most significant architectural achievement during his reign.


Region and Empire 

  • As the construction activities improved between the 8th and the 18th centuries, ideas and techniques were shared across regions. 

  • In Vijayanagar, the king's elephant stables were influenced by the architectural style found in the adjoining sultanates of Golconda and Bijapur. 

  • In Vrindavan, temples had similar architectural forms to the Mughal palaces in Fatehpur Sikri. 

  • Creating large empires that brought different rulers under thermite reign facilitated the cross-fertilization of architectural styles and art forms. 

  • The Mughals integrated the 'Bangla Dome' into their architecture.


Important Questions and Answers 

1. Name the two types of structures built by kings between the eighth and eighteen centuries? 

Ans: Two types of systems created by kings between the eighth and eighteen centuries are- 

  • First type: Palaces, Forts, and Tombs 

  • Second type: Public infrastructures like temples, tanks, mosques, caravans, wells, etc 


2. What were the two architectural developments that took place in the 12th Century? 

Ans: Two distinct artistic architectural developments took place. They were-

  • The arcuate style in which curves conveyed the heap of the construction over entryways and windows.

  • Limestone was used to make cement, and it was mixed with stone chips to harden the concrete. This fastened the process of large-scale construction.


3. Write about the Mahadeva Temple

Ans:  King Dhangadeva constructed the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple in 999. It was a dedicated shrine to Lord Shiva. The image of the important deity was kept in the main shrine, which was called garbhagriha. The temple was a place of ritual worship attended by the priests, kings, and immediate family. Commoners weren't allowed to enter the Khajuraho complex as it included royal temples.


4. Which temple was constructed by Rajarajadeva?

Ans: Rajarajadeva constructed the temple rajarajeshvara. It was dedicated to Lord Rajarajeshvaram. Most of the names of the temple and the Kings were almost similar. 


5. Write about the Sultans as the Shadows of God 

Ans: Muslim Padshahs and Sultans didn't claim to be the incarnation of God. Sultans were described as "Shadows of Gods" in the Persian Cour Chronicles. An inscription on the Delhi mosque stated that Alauddin was chosen by God himself to rule as he has both Solomon and Moses's qualities.


Class 7 Social Science - History Chapter 5 Rulers and Buildings Notes

Rulers and Buildings Class 7 Notes PDF Download

From the eighth to the eighteenth century, kings built mainly two types of structures. One of them were forts, palaces, tombs, gardens, which were safe and protected from the world. At the same time, the other structures were of public importance, including mosques, temples, wells, tanks, etc. Kings mainly constructed these to gain praise from the public. However, the large mansions and architectural structures built during the eighteenth century still stand intact. 


Engineering Skills And Construction

The monuments allow us to gain an insight into the technologies used in its construction.

  • One common example was making a roof which could be done easily with four wooden beams. 

  • However, the creation of elaborate structures requires sophisticated skills. 

  • During the time period of the seventh and tenth centuries, more rooms and doors were added to the structure by opting the style of architecture called ‘corbelled’ or ‘trabeate’. 

  • During the twelfth centuries, two technological developments can be noticed. One of them was the architectural form called ‘arcuate’ and the other one was the use of limestone cement for construction. 


Building, Temples, Mosques and Tanks

Special emphasis was laid on the construction of temples, mosques and religious places as these were considered as a demonstration of power, wealth and devotion of the patrons. 

  • One of the examples is Rajarajeshwara temple. King Rajarajadeva built it to show his devotion to his god Rajarajeshvaram. 

  • The temples were like the miniature models of the kings and their allies. 

  • Muslim sultans and Padhshahs did not claim any incarnations of god. 

  • With each new dynasty coming into power, they tried to convert their capitals into cultural centres to bring fame to their rule and realm. 

  • Universal respect was gained by Sultan Iltutmish when he constructed the Hauz-i-Sultani or the ‘King’s reservoir’. 


Why Were Temples Targeted?

Kings constructed these religious places to demonstrate their devotion towards God, and even as a representation of their power and wealth. During wars and attacks, the kings often targeted these buildings. 

  • One of the examples is of Chola king Rajendra I, who built a Shiva temple in his capital. He filled this place with all possessions that he captivated from the defeated rulers. Some of these included sun pedestals from Chalukyas, Ganesh statues and statues of Durga, among several others. 

  • Sultan Muhammad also tried to gain the credit of a great hero of Islam by destroying one of the temples at Somnath. 


Gardens, Tombs And Forts

Mughals made the architecture very complex. They all were personally interested and keen on literature and art. 

  • They created some of the most beautiful Chahar Baghs, starting with Akbar and followed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan in Kashmir, Delhi and Agra. 

  • The important aspects of Mughal architecture included the towering central dome with the tall gateway. It was built in the tradition known as ‘eight paradises’ or Hasht Bihisht. 

  • Shah Jahan’s reign saw the fusion of several elements of the Mughal architecture. 

  • Shah Jahan constructed the Red Fort in Delhi to display his idea of the connection between royal justice and the imperial court. 

  • Shah Jahan also adapted the riverfront region in Taj Mahal, which was the greatest architectural achievement during his period of reign. He developed this piece of architecture to control the access of people to river Yamuna. As a result of this, he only provided access to the river to his son Dara Shukoh. 


Region and Empire

The construction activities took a leap between the eighth and eighteenth centuries. This led to an increase in the sharing of ideas and adaption of traditions across several regions. 

  • One of the examples could be seen in Vrindavan, Mathura where the temples were constructed in an architectural style similar to that of Mughal palaces of Fatehpur Sikri. 

  • The creation of large empires also led to cross-fertilisation in architectural styles and artistic forms. 

  • Another example of this was the influence of architectural styles of Gujarat and Malwa, which was evident in Fatehpur Sikri, which was Akbar’s capital.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How did the temples demonstrate the importance of kings in any region?

The temples were not just considered as places of worship, but they were also a demonstration of the king’s wealth, power and devotion to the patron. These temples were also like miniature models which depicted an idea of the world ruled by the king and his allies. The kings also built temples by the name of God, and even more, the king’s name was very similar to God’s name. The kings usually took up God’s name as it was very auspicious and even demonstrated the king as God. And according to rituals, it also meant that one God was worshipping the other.

2. What was the role of river Yamuna in the layout of the new Mughal city of Shahjahanabad?

The river Yamuna had a significant role in the layout of the new Mughal city of Shahjahanabad. While constructing the grandest architectural accomplishment of his reign, Shah Jahan acquired the river-front garden in Taj Mahal’s layout. This white marble mausoleum was placed on the edge of the river, and its garden faced towards the south. Shah Jahan built this architectural masterpiece to acquire the power of access that nobles can have over the river. He provided this power only to special people, and the others were commanded to build their homes away from the river Yamuna.  

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