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Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities Class 7 Notes CBSE History Chapter 7 [Free PDF Download]

VSAT 2023

Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities Class 7 Notes History Chapter 7 - PDF Download

CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 7 notes are carefully prepared by the expert teachers who are having years of experience in teaching Social Science. These Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities Class 7 notes are easy to understand, comprehensive, and a good study material to refer to before the board exams. Students can download notes of Class 7 History Chapter 7 in free PDF format to study offline as well.

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Access Class 7 Social Science (History) Chapter 7 - Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities Notes


With the change in economic and political development, social changes also happened in different kinds of society. Society was divided according to the rules of Varna in large parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Varna system was imposed by the Brahmanas. Gradually, the difference between the high and low and between the rich and poor, increased. Under the Delhi Sultans and the Mughals, the hierarchy between social classes grew further.

Tribal Societies Beyond Big Cities

The groups of people who did not follow the Brahmins' social rules and rituals and are not divided into unequal communities are called tribes. 

Characteristics of Tribal Societies

  • The tribes have their own kinship bonds; they live their lives by performing occupations like agriculture, hunter-gathering, using natural resources, and many more. 

  • Some tribes lived in hills, forests, interiors of deserts where it was difficult to reach. 

  • The caste-based and tribal societies also depended on each other for their different needs. This relationship, of conflict and dependence, caused a phenomenal change in both societies.

Who Were Tribal People?

Tribal people were found in different regions of a continent. Their power and influence varied in the other areas.

In Punjab, the Khokhar tribe was very influential during the 13th and 14th centuries. Later the Ghakkars became more important, their chief, Kamal Khan Ghakkar, was a noble (mansabdar) in Akbar's regime.

In Multan and Sindh, the Langahs and Arghuns held power and influence in many regions.

The Balochis were another large and powerful tribe in the North-West.

The shepherd tribe of Gaddis lived in the Western Himalaya.

The north-eastern part was dominated by the Nagas, Ahoms, and many others.

In many areas of present-day Jharkhand and Bihar, there emerged Chero chiefdoms by the 12th century.

The Mundas and Santals were among the other important tribes that lived in Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, and Bengal.

The Maharashtra highlands and Karnataka were home to Kolis, Berads, and numerous others. The Kolis lived in many areas of Gujarat.

The Bhils tribe was spread in the areas of Central and Western India. The Gond tribe were found across the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh.

All these tribes were dependent on agriculture, hunter-gathers, etc.

How Did the Nomadic People Live?

  • Nomadic people travel long distances with their animals, and they consume milk and pastoral products. They exchanged milk and products with the settled farmers to get cloth, utensils, and other products. 

  • The trader nomads were also known as Banjara, and their Caravan was called tanda. 

  • Emperor Alauddin Khilji and Jahangir used banjaras to transport and sell grains to the markets and sold them in different towns and areas. Banjaras also transported food for the Mughal army at the time of military campaigns. 

  • Different castes traveled from village to village to sell ropes, coarse sacks, and straw matting.

Changing Society with New Castes and Hierarchies

  • As the economy and the needs of society grew, people with new skills were required. Smaller castes, or jatis, emerged within varnas. 

  • Specialised artisans like smiths, carpenters, and masons were also recognised as separate jatis by the Brahmanas.

  • Among the Kshatriyas, new Rajput clans became powerful by the 11th and 12th centuries. They belonged to different lineages, such as Hunas, Chandelas, Chalukyas, etc.

The Two Most Important Tribal Groups of Indian History Are: 

The Gonds, Administrative Setup,& Changes in Gond Society

  • The Gonds reside in the vast forest known as Gondwana.

  • The Gond tribe was divided into several smaller clans, and each had its own Raja. 

  • When Delhi Sultans was declining, a few large Gond kingdoms were beginning to dominate the smaller Gond chiefs. 

  • The administrative system of these kingdoms was becoming centralised. The kingdom was divided into garhs.

  • With the emergence of large states, the nature of Gond society changed. The Gond chiefs wished to be recognised as Rajputs. Aman Das, the Gond raja of Garha Katanga, assumed the title of Sangram Shah.

The Ahoms, Religious & Cultural Beliefs of Ahoms

  • The Ahoms migrated to the Brahmaputra valley from present-day Myanmar in the 13th century. 

  • They created a new state by suppressing the old political system of the bhuiyans (landlords). In the 16th century, the Ahoms annexed the kingdoms of the Chhutiyas (1523) and of Koch-Hajo (1581) and subjugated many other tribes.

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FAQs on Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities Class 7 Notes CBSE History Chapter 7 [Free PDF Download]

1. What is the meaning of nomads and settled communities according to Chapter 7 of Class 7 Social Science?

Chapter 7 from History, which is a part of Social Science Class 7 tells us about the nomadic people and the other various settled communities too.Nomads are described as people who travelled from one place to another in caravans without having a permanent settlement. Lastly, the chapter talks about settled communities as well which depicts how a place or area or a population resides is termed as a community.

2. What is a tribe?

In Class 7 Social Science, you will get to learn a lot of things about Tribes. Tribes are defined as those separate communities of people who did not abide by any social norms and hence were not accepted by society. They then formed their own group where kinship prevailed and they did agriculture, hunting etc. Their bond strengthened over time and hence ultimately even their community converted into a society called the tribal society which prevails even today.

3. What is the difference between nomads and tribes?

Tribes and Nomads both are different communities and both did not go with the normal flow of society.  Nomads are basically those people who do not have a particular native place of settlement. They are known to roam about in caravans and therefore also called banjaras in the local language. Nomads consume dairy products and use them in order to barter clothes, utensils etc. In contrast, tribes have a permanent settlement that is outside the actual society. And they make that particular area their native where similar people reside and hunt for a living.

4. What kinds of exchanges took place between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturists according to Chapter 7 of Class 7 Social Science?

Nomads or the Nomadic pastoralists moved long distances in caravans with their animals from whom they extracted products like wool, dairy food products like ghee, milk etc and survived on that food itself. Apart from these, they used these products as a mode of barter with the farmers of the places of their visit in order to take clothing, utensils, grains, animal fodder etc. in return. This was the exchange policy that you will learn in this chapter of Class 7 Social Science.

5. From where can I download Chapter 7 notes of Class 7 Social Science?

For downloading Chapter 7 Notes Social Science Class 7, you will have to go to the website or app of Vedantu. As you visit the page on the website, you will be directed to another page that will ask you to register according to the class you need to refer to for notes. Then you will find subject wise and chapter wise notes there and for downloading you will have to select the one you need and click on “Download PDF”. The PDF will be downloaded free of cost. After this, you can keep it saved to study.