Towns, Traders and Craftsperson Class 7 Notes History Chapter 6 - PDF Download
A traveller during his travels through a medieval town might find different types of centres. It could be an administrative centre or a port town or a commercial town. Most of these towns tend to have so many different types of plots such as temples and so much more. In order to know more about the towns, people need to dive deep into the population, craftsperson details and so much more.
This is exactly what we have to discuss here with Class 7 history towns traders and craftspersons notes. Here in this summary, we are going to provide an overview of different types of towns and what can one find in them.
Access Class 7 History Chapter 6 - Towns, Traders and Craftspersons
● Thanjavur, which was the capital of Cholas, was also
an administrative center.
● The perennial river Kaveri flows near this gorgeous town.
● King Rajaraja Chola and his architect Kunjaramallan Rajaraja Perunthachan built the Rajarajeshvara temple.
● Many palaces have pavilions or mandapas.
Temple Towns and Pilgrimage Centres
Thanjavur is a temple town that represents an essential model of urbanization.
Temples are the basis for economic and social development.
Land and money were given to temples to perform elaborate rituals, feed priests and pilgrims, and organize festivals in style.
Pilgrims who visit the temples also make donations.
Temple custodians use their earnings to fund businesses and banks
Pilgrimage centres also slowly developed into townships. Vrindavan (Uttar Pradesh) and Tiruvannamalai (Tamil Nadu) are examples of two such towns.
A Network of Small Towns
● From the 8th century onwards several small towns emerged from large villages.
● Mandapika and hatta or trading streets are also present in these towns.
There were different kinds of artisans, like potters, oil pressers, sugar makers, toddy makers, smiths, stonemasons, etc.
● Zamindar imposes taxes on artisans, traders, and clothing.
Small and Big Traders
Since traders had to pass through many kingdoms and forests, they usually traveled in caravans and formed guilds to protect their interests.
There were also communities like the Chettiars and the Marwari Oswal.
Gujarati traders, including the communities of Hindu Baniyas and Muslim Bohras, traded extensively with the ports of the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, East Africa, South East Asia, and China.
Crafts in Towns
The community of Vishwakarma includes goldsmiths, blacksmiths, bronzesmiths, carpenters, and masons.
This community is needed to build the temple.
Saliyar or Kaikkolars was a community of weavers that flourished at this time and raised large sums for the temples.
Hampi of the Vijayanagara Empire is located in the Krishna-Tungabhadra basin, founded in 1336.
Hampi was a well-fortified city
No mortar or cementing agent was used in the construction of these walls and the technique followed was to wedge them together by interlocking.
The Mahanavami festival, (Navaratri) was one of the most important festivals celebrated at Hampi.
Surat in Gujarat was the emporium of western trade during the Mughal period along with Cambay and Ahmedabad.
Surat was the gateway for trade with West Asia via the Gulf of Ormuz. It has also been called the gate to Mecca because many pilgrim ships set sail from Surat.
Surat was a cosmopolitan city and people of all castes and creeds lived there.
Surat began to decline towards the end of the 17th century due to the loss of markets and productivity because of the decline of the Mughal Empire, control of the sea routes by the Portuguese, and competition from Bombay where the English East India Company shifted its headquarters in 1668.
This town lay on the delta of river Krishna.
The Dutch and English East India Companies both attempted to control Masulipatnam as it became the most important port on the Andhra coast.
Fierce competition among various trading groups -the Golconda nobles, Persian merchants, Telugu Komati Chettis, and European traders-made the city populous and prosperous.
Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb annexed Golconda. This made the Europeans look for alternatives.
The Company traders moved to Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras, Masulipatnam lost both its merchants and prosperity.
New Towns and Traders
The 18th Century gave rise to cities such as Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta which are currently nodal cities.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, European countries were searching for spices and textiles, which had become popular both in Europe and West Asia.
Great Indian traders like Mulla Abdul Ghafur and Virji Vora who owned a large number of ships competed with the English, French, and Dutch.
But the European Companies used their naval power to gain control of the sea trade and forced Indian traders to work as their agents.
An Overview of The Administrative Centers
One of the main examples of the Administrative centres would be Thanjavur which is the capital of Cholas. Situated near the Kaveri river, this place has the Rajarajeshvara Temple which was built during the Chola dynasty. There is a water supply in the town which is provided from the wells along with the tanks. The nearby towns of Uraiyur tend to produce certain cloth for the flags and so much more. With the help of the towns traders and craftspersons Class 7 notes, one can find out more about this administrative centre.
Details of Pilgrimage Centers and The Temple Towns
The temple towns tend to provide an important pattern that denotes urbanization. This is a process with which the development of the city is possible. The temples are pretty much essential for the economy and people can definitely showcase their devotion through these towns which are dedicated to deities and temples built in their honour. With the increase of the population near these towns, there were more priests, artisans, and workers to take care of it. Some of the other temple towns are built such as Somnath which is situated in Gujrat and Tirupati which is situated in Andhra Pradesh. You can find all the details in the town’s traders and craftsmen Class 7 notes.
Understanding The Network of Small Towns
Starting from the 8th century, there were a lot of small towns jotted along the subcontinent. These towns were a result of larger villages and they have a mandi or a mandapika. The villagers would bring the products in order to sell them there. These locations were known as Haat or Hatta. The locations were lined with different types of shops in the streets in which artisans such as oil pressers, potters, sugarmakers, smiths, and such traders would sell their trades. You can get all the details in Class 7 history Ch 6 notes.
Traders: Small and Big
There were many different types of traders, one of which was known as Banjaras. These were the horse traders who would negotiate with the warriors who went to buy the horses. These traders would pass from one kingdom to another on their caravans in search of proper trading places. Some of the most important groups of traders came to be known as Chettiars, Baniya, or the Bohras in different communities. These traders would also extensively perform their trade-in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and so many other areas. You can refer to the Class 7 history towns traders and craftspersons notes.
Different Types of Crafts in Towns
The Bidar or more commonly known as the Craftspersons were pretty much famous for the inlay work that they did in silver and copper. Most of them came to be known as Panchalas. There were some other goldsmiths, masons, blacksmiths, bronze smiths as a part of the community. They were also responsible for the building of the temples and had a very important role to play in the construction of different types of palaces as well. In the Towns traders and craftspersons Class 7 notes, you can find some details about these craftspeople.
Establishment of New Towns and Different Trades Associated With Them
Over time, during the early 16th as well as the 17th century, the European countries began searching for spices and textiles. Also, the formation of East India Companies marked the beginning of an expansion of several commercial activities which were committed in the east. This led to the formation of new trades as the officials would force Indians to work in the position of their agents. With the increase in the political and commercial power of English, there was more demand for certain goods and this also led to the growth of the textile industry, thus giving birth to new trades and traders. There are more details in the towns traders and craftsmen Class 7 notes.
FAQs on Towns, Traders and Craftsperson Class 7 Notes CBSE History Chapter 6 [Free PDF Download]
1. How was the Water Supplied to Thanjavur?
Ans: Water in Thanjavur came from tanks and wells which were provided to the city with the help of certain channels.
2. Who Inhabited the ‘Black Towns’ in the Cities such as Madras?
Ans: Several artisans and merchants along with some native traders would inhabit the ‘Black Towns’ in Madras.
3. What was the Reason for the Growth of Towns Around Temples?
Ans: The settlements of priests, artisans, and workers around the temples led to the formation of towns. Also, the formation of shops could be another one of the reasons.