CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 9 Notes - The Making of Regional Cultures

The Making of Regional Cultures Class 7 Notes History Chapter 9 - PDF Download

India is a land of diversity in several aspects. We associate the people and regions with the language they speak. For example, if a person is speaking Bengali or Punjabi, we will relate to them as living in the Bengal or Punjab regions. Moreover, each region across the nation has its own culture, traditions, food and lifestyle. But, have all these regional cultures existed forever? No, this is surely a misconception. The regional cultures that we experience and follow in the present day have evolved by the mixing of local traditions with ideas and values inculcated from other regions. While there are some old practices that people still follow, but, over time, they are evolving into new forms. Let us help you in gaining a deeper insight into the making of regional cultures with our class 7 history chapter 9 notes.

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CBSE Class 7 History Chapter 9 Notes - The Making of Regional Cultures part-1

Class 7 Social Science - History Chapter 9 The Making of Regional Cultures Notes

The Making of Regional Cultures

The language an individual speaks may determine their place of origin. We serve to correlate every region with particular kinds of food, clothes, poetry, dance, music, and painting. The culture we perceive today is intermixing local customs with beliefs from other parts of the subcontinent. Some traditions appear specific to some regions, some are similar across regions, and others derive from older systems and new forms.


The Cheras and the Development of Malayalam

  • In the ninth century, the Chera kingdom of the ruler Mahodayapuram was founded.

  • Example of culture based on language.

  • It was established in the southwestern part of the country, which is now known as Kerala.

  • Malayalam was likely spoken in this area. So, the Malayalam language and script were introduced in the ruler's inscriptions.

  • It is the earliest usage of a regional language in official records in India.

  • The Sanskrit epics' stories were borrowed by the temple theatre of Kerala, which depicted the ruler's admiration for the Sanskrit language.

  • During the 12th century, the literary works in Malayalam were blooming of whose credit goes to Sanskrit.

  • The Lilatilakam, A fourteenth-century text, which discusses punctuation and poetics, was written in Manipravalam – in a real sense, signifies "precious stones and corals."

  • Manipravalam refers to two languages Sanskrit and Malayalam.


Rulers and Religious Traditions: The Jagannatha Cult

  • Example of culture based on Religion.

  • Jagannatha is the name of Vishnu at Puri, Orissa.

  • Jagannatha was a local deity who was later identified as Vishnu from making the local wooden image.

  • In the twelfth century, Anantavarman, a leader of the Ganga dynasty, chosen to raise a sanctuary for Purushottama Jagannatha at Puri. In 1230, ruler Anangabhima III gave his realm to God and considered himself the "delegate" of God.

  • When the Mughals the conquered Orissa Marathas, and the English East India Company, controlled the Temple. Assuming it would give them power over the locals. Thus, emphasizing the political influence of the Temple.


The Rajputs and Traditions of Heroism

  • In the nineteenth century, most parts of Rajasthan were called Rajputana by the British.

  • It suggests Rajputs majorly occupied it. Some Rajputs live in other parts of India as well. But Rajasthani culture is influenced by Rajputs majorly.

  • Prithviraj was one Rajput ruler. Rajput rulers believe in heroism.

  • The glory of Rajputs was recorded in poetic poems and songs.

  • Specially trained minstrels recited stories about Rajputs. They were meant to inspire their successors.

  • Familiar people were also intrigued by these stories as these stories depicted dramatic situations and strong emotions like loyalty, friendship, love, courage, anger, etc.

  • Women also played roles in these stories as the stories involved war to win or protect women. Sometimes, women are depicted to follow their husbands' heroic ideals, mostly giving their lives, and Sati was also talked about.


Beyond Regional Frontiers: The Story of Kathak

  • The word Kathak comes from Katha, meaning story.

  • The Kathaks was initially known as a caste of storytellers in temples of north India. Their storytelling was added with songs and dances.

  • During the spread of the bhakti movement, Kathak began evolving into a distinct mode of dance.

  • The stories of Radha-Krishna were acted in the name of Rasa Lila.

  • The practice of dancing in Mughal courts gave Kathak the particular style that it has today.

  • Two traditions or Gharanas of Kathak: one in the courts of Rajasthan and the other in Lucknow.

  • Under the protection of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh kathak grew even more.

  • After 1850, Kathak was well established in Rajasthan, Lucknow, Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh.

  • Though the British disfavoured it, courtesans continued to perform and were acknowledged as one of six primaries of "classical" dance forms in India after independence.


Painting for Patrons: The Tradition of Miniatures

  • Miniatures are little estimated expressions done in watercolor on fabric or paper. Prior miniatures are on palm leaves or wood. 

  • Found in western India, it used to delineate Jaina messages. 

  • Skilled painters represented uniquely in compositions, depicting court scenes, scenes of fight or chasing, furthermore, different parts of public activity.

  • These painters were brought in by The Mughal emperors Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan.

  • They were considered gifts.

  • Mughal creative preferences changed the local courts of the Deccan and the Rajput courts of Rajasthan.

  • Portraits of rulers and court scenes were painted, initially only by Mughals but followed by other rulers.

  • The Himalayan foothills, the modern-day state of Himachal Pradesh was also attracted to miniature arts.

  • By the late seventeenth century, a style of scaled-down painting called Basohli was shaped. The most conspicuous content to be painted here was Bhanudatta's Rasamanjari.

  • Nadir Shah's invasion of Delhi in 1739 resulted in Mughal artists' migration to the hills to escape. Here they found ready buyers, which led to the starting of the Kangra school of painting.

  • Later in the eighteenth century, the Kangra artists adopted a new style inspired by the Vaishnavite traditions. Kangra paintings were distinguished by soft colors, including cool blues and greens, and lyrical treatment of themes.


A Closer Look: Bengal

  • People residing in Bengal speak Bengali, which is believed to be derived from Sanskrit. But the natives did not speak Sanskrit.

  • From the fourth-third century BCE, business ties started to grow between Bengal and Magadha, which may cause the Sanskrit influence.

  • During the fourth century, the Gupta rulers set political authority over north Bengal and settled Brahmanas in this area, thus the influence.

  • The change in rulers also influenced the local dialect.

  • Early Bengali literature was majorly divided into two categories. One was dependent on Sanskrit, and the other was not.


Pirs and Temples

  • The Bengalis shifted eastwards in search of fertile land. Their settlement here and the Mughal's conquest influenced the building of Mosques and their influence on the residents.

  • Pirs were Community leaders. They also were teachers and adjudicators. Sometimes with supernatural powers to stabilize the settlements.

  • Many of the basic block and earthenware sanctuaries in Bengal were worked with the help of a few "low" gatherings of people.


Fish as Food

  • Brahmanas generally don't consume Non-Vegetarian food. But Bengal Brahmanas consumed fish, as fish was a significant food supply for Bengalis, close to riverine.

  • On the dividers of sanctuaries and viharas portray pictures of fish being dressed and taken to the market.


Important Questions and Answers

1. Were paintings only done by the artists?

Ans: No, even ordinary people painted. Familiar people also painted on floors, walls, clothes, and pots. Far apart from the miniatures precisely preserved in palaces for centuries, these works were not properly maintained. Miniature paintings were considered more valuable than usual paintings by ordinary people for decoration or hobbies.


2. Explain the two types of Bengali literature.

Ans: Ancient Bengali literature was divided into two categories. One was indebted to the Sanskrit language, and the other was independent of Sanskrit. The first type includes the translations of Sanskrit literary works. For instance, the Mangal Kavyas, which managed nearby divinities and bhakti writing like the memoirs of Chaitanyadeva, the head of the Vaishnava bhakti development. The second includes the literature type called Nath, which comprises Maynamati and Gopichandra. Those are the stories about Dharma Thakur and fairy tales, folk tales, and ballads.


3. List the rulers of Bengal

Ans: 

  • From the eighth century, Bengal turned into the middle of a provincial realm under the Palas.

  • Bengal was ruled by Sultans between the 14th and 16th centuries.

  • In 1586, Akbar conquered Bengal and created the nucleus of Bengal Cuba.

  • Persian was the language of administration; Bengali was the regional language.


4. What are Pirs?

Ans: A Persian word meaning a profound aide. Local area pioneers, who are likewise instructors and adjudicators and now and again with extraordinary forces, were called Pirs. They planned to balance out the local area. It consisted of saints or Sufis and other religious preachers, soldiers, colonizers, many Hindu and Buddhist gods, and animistic spirits. Pirs even had their shrines.


5. Explain one example of the linguistic influence on culture.

Ans: 

  • Malayalam was likely spoken in Kerala. So, the Malayalam language and script were introduced in the ruler's inscriptions.

  • It is the earliest usage of a regional language in official records in India.

  • The Sanskrit epics' stories were borrowed by the temple theatre of Kerala, which depicted the ruler's admiration for the Sanskrit language.

  • The main conspicuous scholarly works in Malayalam, dated to about the twelfth century, are in Sanskrit.

  • During the 12th century, the literary works in Malayalam were blooming of whose credit goes to Sanskrit.

  • The Lilatilakam, A fourteenth-century text, which talks about punctuation and poetics, was written in Manipravalam – in a real sense, it signifies "precious stones and corals."

  • Manipravalam refers to two languages Sanskrit and Malayalam.


6. Why did Bengali Brahmins relax the prohibitions?

Ans: Fish was a staple diet of Bengalis. Bengal is a land having more access to riverine and sea. Brahmanas generally don't consume Non-Vegetarian food. But Bengal Brahmins Consumed fish, as fish were a significant food supply for Bengalis, as close to riverine. On the dividers of sanctuaries and viharas depict pictures of fish being dressed and taken to the market.


7. List the "classical" dances recognized by the Indian government.

Ans: Dance forms that are recognized as classical are: 

  • Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu)

  • Kathakali (Kerala)

  • Odissi (Orissa)

  • Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh) Manipuri (Manipur)

  • Kathak (Lucknow)


8. What is animism?

Ans: The attribution of the living soul to plants, lifeless things, and everyday marvels is known as animism. 

It is a conviction framework expressing plants and creatures to have a spirit quintessence. It was a significant piece of the profound instruction of antiquated India.


9. What is Manipravalam? Name a book written in that language.

Ans: 

Manipravalam means, in a real sense, "jewels and corals," which is accepted to allude to the two dialects, Sanskrit and Malayalam. 

The Lilatilakam, A fourteenth-century text, which discusses punctuation and poetics, was written in Manipravalam – in a real sense, signifies "precious stones and corals." 


10. What are the critical structural provisions of the sanctuaries of Bengal? 

Ans: The Bengali sanctuaries replicated the twofold roofed or four-roofed design of the covered hovels. This prompted the movement of the good Bengali style in sanctuary engineering. In the somewhat more composite four-roofed design, four three-sided rooftops situated on the four dividers progress to associate on a bent line or a point.

Temples were generally constructed on a square platform. The inside was genuinely plain. However, a few sanctuaries' external dividers were decorated with different art, elaborate tiles, and earthenware tablets.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How was fish taken as food in the Bengal region?

The food habits were highly influenced by the local items available. The Bengal region being a riverine plain, had immense produce of fish and rice. This made these items prominent in the Bengali meals. Moreover, fishing has always been a prominent occupation for the people in that region. But, the Brahmans could not eat it because of religious constraints. However, as fish became more popular, Brahmanical authorities relaxed this prohibition in the nineteenth century.

2. Give some of the main architectural features of temples in Bengal.

The list of some of the architectural features which are significant in the temples of Bengal include:

  • The double roof also has Dochala, and four roofs also called Chauchala on the temples. 

  • These temples were usually constructed on a square platform and had very simple interiors. 

  • The outer walls of the temples were adorned with the paintings, terracotta tables, and even ornamental tiles. 

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