Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 2 [Free PDF Download]

Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes Geography Chapter 2 - PDF Download

The ecological system is considered as a complex web which is formed by human beings along with all the living organisms that exist in the world. Chapter 2 Geography Class 10 starts by introducing flora and fauna that exists in India. The chapter gives an explanatory description of how forest plays an essential role in the ecological system. This chapter also explains different ways to conserve the forest and wildlife in India. At the end of the chapter, a student will learn how people are taking different steps to conserve our forest and wildlife resources. Students can learn this more positively with the help of forest and wildlife resources Class 10 notes.

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Access Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 - Forest and Wildlife Resources Notes

Biodiversity is extremely diverse on earth and works interdependently. It is a system of closely knit networks that sustains the ecosystem.

India has world’s largest biodiversity thriving on its land and 10 per cent of the recorded wild flora and 20 per cent of its mammals are on the threatened list.

As the list generated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the species can be classified as follows–

1. Normal species: They have population levels normal for survival. Example: pine, rodents, etc.

2. Endangered Species: They are in danger of extinction and would eventually decline if the present conditions continue. 

Example: crocodile, rhino, lion tale macaque etc.

3. Vulnerable species: These species are vulnerable to fall into the endangered category in near future.

Example: Asiatic elephant, dolphin, blue sheep etc.

4. Rare species: They have a small population that can move to an endangered or vulnerable category in the near future if the present conditions for their survival sustain itself.

Example: Asiatic buffalo, hornbill etc.

5. Endemic species: These species are only found in a limited geographical area.

Example: Andaman teal,  Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh.

6. Extinct species: These species are not found in the areas they were likely to be found. 

Example: Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.


Causes of environmental degradation

  • Between 1951 and 1980, according to the Forest Survey of India, over 26,200 sq. km. of forest area was converted into agricultural land all over India and substantial parts of the tribal belts, especially in northeastern and central India were deforested to practice shifting cultivation (jhum), a type of ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.

  • Around 5,000 sq km of forest lands have been cleared to progress river valley projects, since 1951. For example: About 40,000 hectares of forests were cleared for the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh.

  • Mining also causes large scale deforestation. 

  • The Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal is threatened by the ongoing dolomite mining. 

  • There are various factors like poaching, over-exploitation, pollution, hunting, forest fire etc. that contribute to declining in the vast biodiversity India harbours.

  • Overpopulation in third world countries is a prime cause of environmental degradation.


Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India

  • Conservation is vital since it will help us to protect our environment and protect our ecosystem which in turn helps to preserve the genetic diversity that the ecosystem has.

  • The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented in 1972, which made various provisions for protecting habitats.

  • The central government also announced several projects for protecting specific animals, which were gravely threatened, including the tiger, the one horned rhinoceros, the Kashmir stag or hangul, three types of crocodiles – fresh water crocodile, saltwater crocodile and the Gharial are some of the animals.

  • The government has also provided partial or full legal protection to animals such as Indian elephants, black buck, snow leopard etc. to protect them from extinction.  


Project Tiger

  • The tiger population in 1973 declined to 1,827 from the estimated 55,000 and hence forced the authorities to take a serious action towards the same.

  • Tigers face the major threats and are on the verge of extinction because of shrinkage of their habitat due to the growing human population, poaching, depletion of prey base species etc.

  • The trade of tiger skins and the use of their bones in traditional medicines, especially in Asian countries has left the tiger population on the verge of extinction. 

  • “Project Tiger”was launched in 1973 and was not only an effort to save tigers but also to preserve the biotypes.

  • Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand, Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal, Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh, Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan, Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam and Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala are some of the tiger reserves of India.

  • Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986 added several hundred butterflies, moths, beetles, and one dragonfly to the list of protected species.


Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources

The forests are classified as follows:

(i) Reserved Forests: These are the most vital for the conservation of forest and wildlife and about half of the total forest land has been placed under this category.

(ii) Protected Forests: Forest Department had declared one-third of the total forest area as protected forest which saves it from further depletion.

(iii) Unclassed Forests: Both private individuals, government and communities own these lands. They mostly include forests and wasteland.


Community and Conservation

  • In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act. 

  • In five villages located in the Alwar district of Rajasthan, the inhabitants have declared 1200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’. They don’t allow hunting in these regions and hence protect the wildlife from an outside harm.

  • Sacred groves do not have religious sentiments attached but also saves a wealth of rare species. These beliefs have preserved several virgin forests in pristine form called Sacred Groves (the forests of God and Goddesses). 

  • Mahua is worshipped by the the Mundas and the Santhal of Chota Nagpur region while tamarind and mango are worshipped by the tribes of Odisha and Bihar during weddings. In Indian Hindu society, peepal trees is considered sacred.

  • Blackbuck, peacocks and nilgai are seen as an integral part of the Bishnoi villages in Rajasthan and aren’t harmed or killed.

  • The Chipko moment has successful helped in saving the flora but has also brought people together to save the environment.

  • Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya has promoted people to stop using synthetic chemicals as sufficient crop harvest can be produced even without the use of chemical fertilizers.

  • Joint forest management (JFM) programme involves local people and communities to restore forests. It was first started in Odisha in 1988.


Important Questions and Answers:

1. What was the list of animals that were added to the protected list?

Ans: The central government announced several projects for protecting specific animals, which were gravely threatened. List includes the tiger, the one horned rhinoceros, the Kashmir stag or hangul, three types of crocodiles – fresh water crocodile, saltwater crocodile and the Gharial, the Asiatic lion, and others. 

The government has also provided partial or full legal protection to animals such as Indian elephants, black buck, snow leopard etc. to protect them from extinction.  

Several butterflies, moths, beetles, and one dragonfly was also added to the list of protected species under the Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986.


2. What are permanent forests?

Ans: Reserved and protected forests are together called as permanent forests. They are maintained for timber collection and other natural products. 


3. Why is aquatic diversity important for human communities?

Ans: Fisheries are a major source of income for many communities, especially along the coastline. A rich aquatic diversity will provide a constant income for them. Everyone depends on water for their daily activities and hence rich water resources would mean a healthy community and regular food source.


4. What were the impacts of the Chipko Movement?

Ans: The Chipko moment has successful helped in saving the flora but has also brought people together to save the environment. It also gave rise to many other programs where the community came together to save the natural resources. Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya has promoted people to stop using synthetic chemicals as sufficient crop harvest can be produced even without the use of chemical fertilizers. Joint forest management (JFM) programme involves local people and communities to restore forests. It was first started in Odisha in 1988.


Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources

Flora and Fauna in India

India is considered to be one of the wealthiest countries in terms of biological diversity. In India, one can find different types of forest and wildlife resources that are spread all around the country. The existing plants and animals species in the world are explained well in forest and wildlife resources Class 10 notes and are classified into the following categories:-

  • Normal Species

Species who have a normal population level are categorised as normal species. The normal population level is mandatory for survival. Examples of such species are cattle, san, pine, rodents, etc.

  • Endangered Species

Species those who are under the danger of getting extinct are considered as endangered species. Some examples of this species are black duck, Indian rhino, crocodile, etc.

  • Vulnerable Species

These are the species whose population level is decreasing at an alarming rate, and if not controlled, then this species can become endangered. Some examples of such species are blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, etc.

  • Rare Species

These species are in a small population, and if negative factors that decrease their population keep on affecting them, then they might enter into an endangered or vulnerable category. Some examples of these species are Asiatic buffalo, desert fox, hornbill, etc.

  • Endemic Species

This type of species are only found in particular areas, and nowhere else such species are Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, etc.

  • Extinct Species

These are species which are already extinct such as dinosaurs, mammoths, etc.


Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India

Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 notes give a brief knowledge on how to conserve the forest and wildlife in India from all the negative factors. Conservation is the best way for preserving ecological diversity, and it is also responsible for preserving the genetic diversity of plants and animals. If the students face confusions in understanding this whole conservation process, then they can take the help of Geography Chapter 2 Class 10 notes for guidance.

The Indian government in 1972 implemented the Indian Wildlife Protection act for protecting habitats and different species. The government also launched several projects for protecting flora and fauna.


Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources

The forest department of India manages the forest and wildlife resources of India. The management process is correctly explained in Geography Class 10 Chapter 2 notes for students to understand clearly. According to Chapter 2 Geography Class 10 notes, the forest that is managed by the forest department are classified into the following categories:

1. Reserved Forest

Almost half of the forest area in India is considered a reserved forest because the forest department declares it.

2. Protected Forest

A total of one-third of India's forest area is declared as protected forest by the forest department.

3. Unclassed Forest

These are those forest areas whose ownership rights lie in the hands of both the government as well as individuals and personal communities.

In Geography, Class 10 Chapter 2 notes, reserved and protected forests are also considered as permanent forests which are managed and maintained to produce time and protect the forest.


CBSE Class 10 Geography Other Chapter Notes

Students can download Class 10 Contemporary India II Revision Notes for all chapters free pdf through the links below.


Community and Conservation

From the Geography Chapter 2 Class 10 notes, students have come to know how important it is to conserve wildlife and forest resources. Let us discuss some steps which are taken by different people to conserve forest and wildlife resources:

  • In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan villagers have started a fight against mining by using the terms of the Wildlife Protection Act.

  • In Alwar district of Rajasthan, inhabitants from five villages have decided to declare 1200 hectares of forest land as Bhairodev Dakav 'Sonchuri'. These are rules imposed by the villagers to safeguard the forest.

  • The famous Chipko Movement, which started from the Himalayas, was a great movement to safeguard the trees and decrease the rate of deforestation. It also helped in increasing the number of afforestation committees in the country.


Important Topics Covered in the Chapter

The following topics are covered under CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 - Forest and Wildlife Resources that students need to go through before beginning to revise the concepts in-depth:

  • Introduction

  • Flora and Fauna in India

  • Causes of Depleting flora and Fauna

  • Species Classification

  • Forest and Wildlife Resources - Types and Distribution

  • Conservation of Forests and Wildlife in India

  • Community and Conservation


Conclusion

Vedantu’s Class 10 Revision Notes on Geography Chapter 2 - Forest and Wildlife Resources will allow students to revise the chapter thoroughly and prepare for their Class 10 Geography exam. Students can also find Class 10 Geography Revision Notes for all other chapters on Vedantu’s website. These notes are curated by our expert teachers and cover all the important points and concepts that are explained on the chapter.

FAQs on Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 2 [Free PDF Download]

1. What are the negative factors that are causing harm to flora and fauna?

Some of the reasons that are causing harm to flora and fauna are as follow:-

  • Humans are responsible for the excessive consumption of natural resources in order to fulfil their needs.

  • With the increase in infrastructures such as railway lines, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry, flora and fauna are getting affected.

  • Increase of mining activities and large scale development projects at forest lands in causing harm to the natural resources.

  • The consumption of natural resources is not balanced, and the rules and regulations made for protecting it are not efficient. The government had to update its laws in regards to the forest.

2. What's the importance of notes in class exams?

Students sometimes are confused with the teaching of teachers and can't understand anything. This can turn out to be a bigger problem for students during exams as they are not clear on the subjects. At this time, the one thing that students can rely on is notes because in notes each and every chapter is explained efficiently and more simply. Students who prepare to take the reference of notes to secure the highest possible marks in the exams because these notes make them confident and more knowledgeable. Notes act as saviours for students during the preparation for the final exams.

3. Give an introduction about Chapter 2 Class 10 Geography.

Chapter 2 of Class 10 Geography begins with an overview of India's flora and wildlife. The chapter explains how forests play an important part in the natural system. This chapter also discusses several methods for conserving India's forests and animals. It generates awareness about our forests and animal kingdom. Students will discover how individuals are taking diverse actions to protect our forest and wildlife resources at the end of the chapter.

4. Give a summary of the Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 notes provide a quick overview of how to protect India's forests and animals from all threats. Conservation is the most effective method for conserving biological diversity as well as genetic diversity of plants and animals. Many species of plant and animal are endangered, therefore need to be conserved. If students are having trouble comprehending the conservation process, they can use the Geography Chapter 2 Class 10 Notes as a guide.

5. Explain the difference between vulnerable and rare species.

Vulnerable Species are species that are at risk of extinction. These are species whose populations are declining at an alarming rate, and which, if not managed, may become endangered. Blue sheep, Asiatic elephants, and other similar creatures are examples. 

Rare Species are those that have a limited population, and if unfavourable causes that reduce their number continue to impact them, they may become endangered or vulnerable. Asiatic buffalo, desert fox, hornbill, and other animals are examples of these species.

6. What are the types and Distribution of Forests?

India's forest and animal resources are managed by the forest department. In Geography Class 10 Chapter 2 Notes, the management method is thoroughly presented for students to grasp. India has flora and fauna spread all over the country. For a better understanding, the forests are divided into different parts. The forest that is administered by the forest department is categorised into the following groups:

  • Reserved Forest

  • Protected Forest

  • Unclassed Forest

To revise the chapter offline, students can also download the notes PDF free of cost.

7. What is the Chipko movement?

The legendary Chipko Campaign, which began in the village Reni of Garhwal in the Himalayas, was a tremendous movement to protect trees and reduce deforestation rates. It was started by Sunderlal Bahuguna. It also aided in the growth of afforestation committees around the country. This is a historic event that happened to conserve trees for a better future since the deforestation rates were high and the trees were cut continuously at that time. For more information and revision notes students can download the Vedantu app.

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