Water Resources Class 10 Notes Geography Chapter 3 - PDF Download
The 3rd chapter of class 10 geography is water resources. In the class 10 geography chapter 3 notes, the topics that are going to be discussed are the sources of water and the scarcity of water and the problem related to it. The water resources notes also cover the topic of dams construction over rivers. In the water resources class 10 notes, the topic of water-conserving is also going to be discussed. The water resources notes cover all the necessary topics that are extremely important for the board examination. It can save you time and will positively affect your result.
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Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources Notes
Summary of Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Notes
The main points covered in this chapter are:
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Three fourth of the earth is covered with water, but only 2.5 per cent out of the total water volume exists as freshwater. The rest 96.5 per cent is salt water from the ocean. More than 70 per cent of the freshwater source exists as glaciers in Antarctica and high altitude mountain regions of the world. In the world, there is only 30 per cent fresh water which is stored as groundwater. Water resources are renewable, and it gets renewed within a short period. The hydrological cycle makes water a renewable source.
Fresh Water Sources
The freshwater sources include surface water and groundwater. The surface water sources are rivers, lakes, ponds etcetera. The water that is stored underground is also a fresh water source. Both these sources get renewed by rainfall.
Water Scarcity and The Reasons Behind It
Water Scarcity is nothing but a shortage of water. It can happen naturally in the regions which are prone to drought and experience low rainfall.
Several other reasons may lead to water scarcity. These reasons include:
Water Scarcity can happen by overexploitation of the water resources. The excessive or unnecessary use of water in various parts of the world is one of the main reasons.
In dry areas, more water is required for irrigation purposes. Water is also required more and more because of multiple cropping and for HYV seeds. More food resources are needed as the urbanisation and industrialisation are progressing along with the civilisation.
Water is not distributed equally on this planet. In some parts, there is sufficient water available to fulfil all the needs, but in some parts, people suffer from water scarcity.
The water quality is deteriorating day by day. It happens because domestic wastes and industrial wastes get into the water sources. Water pollution can also occur as chemical pesticides, and fertilisers get washed away by rainfall and fall directly into the water bodies.
Human activities like the immersion of idols and many religious rituals also lead to water pollution, and the water sources become useless. Pumping out the groundwater leads to the falling level of water underground.
Water scarcity also affects the ecological cycle. It is high time to conserve and manage all the water resources.
Measures Taken for Water Conservation
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Stoppage of overusing of underground water and it can be recharged by using techniques like rainwater harvesting, watershed development programs etcetera.
By avoiding the wastage of water.
Water conservation can also be done by using irrigation techniques like drip irrigation, sprinkles etcetera.
Multi-Purpose River Projects and Integrated Water Resources Management
From ancient times the water is conserved by constructing structures like dams which were used by building stones over water sources. Even now in India, there is a presence of dams in most of the rivers.
Definition of Dam
A dam is a barrier that is being built across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the water flow and by doing so creates a water reservoir, lake or impoundment. The term ‘dam’ refers to the water reservoir, not the whole structure. You can also take a look at the major dams in India map class 10 to have a better understanding.
Most of the dams are built to control floods, but some of them triggered floods. One of the significant movements to save a river is ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’. It was a movement which was mobilised by an NGO and had protesters that include tribal people, farmers, human rights activists and environmentalists. The protest was against a dam called Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada River in Gujarat. The movement focuses on rehabilitation and environmental issues.
Rain Water Harvesting
Rainwater harvesting is a simple method in which rainwater is collected for future usage. Different ways are used for rainwater harvesting. These methods are –
In the floodplains of West Bengal, people build inundation channels for irrigation purposes.
In the hill regions, people built diversion channels for rainwater harvesting. An excellent example of it is ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ in the Western Himalayas.
Rooftop rainwater harvesting is a standard method that is used mostly in the arid and semi-arid regions like Rajasthan. ‘Tankas’ are part of this rooftop rainwater harvesting. It happens mainly in Bikaner, Barmer and some other areas
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Explain how water becomes a renewable resource?
Water is considered to be a renewable source. Rainfall is the main reason that the surface water and the groundwater get recharged within a short period due to three processes in the hydrological cycle. These processes are – Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation. Overexploitation of water sources leads to water scarcity. Water scarcity is nothing but the shortage of water, and it may happen due to several reasons like water use in dry season agriculture, water pollution that turns water sources useless etcetera.
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects?
The advantages of multi-purpose river projects include Irrigation, Flood prevention, Hydrolytic electricity generation, Inland navigation, and Water supply for domestic and industrial purposes. The disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects are Aquatic flora and fauna get affected, The water flow gets affected, Land submerged in the surrounding areas, Land rehabilitation problem on a large scale and many ecological consequences.