Water Resources Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 3 [Free PDF Download]

Water Resources Class 10 Notes Geography Chapter 3 - PDF Download

The 3rd chapter of class 10 geography is water resources. In the class 10 geography chapter 3 notes, the topics that are going to be discussed are the sources of water and the scarcity of water and the problem related to it. The water resources notes also cover the topic of dams construction over rivers. In the water resources class 10 notes, the topic of water-conserving is also going to be discussed. The water resources notes cover all the necessary topics that are extremely important for the board examination. It can save you time and will positively affect your result.

The following table shows the important highlights associated with CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 - Water Resources:






Class 10




Chapter 3

Chapter Name

Water Resources


CBSE Revision Notes

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Access Class 10 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 3 - Water Resources Notes

  • Earth's surface is covered three-fourth with water, but very small percentage of water is usable and accessible to us. This is mainly the surface run-off and groundwater which can be renewed by the hydrological process. Still, Water scarcity persists.

  • Causes of Water Scarcity: Some of the common causes are:-

  1. Uneven Precipitation - The seasonal and annual rainfall varies with respect to geographical region and time.

  2. Over Exploitation- With the increasing population and unequal access to water resources, the water resources are exploited for domestic purposes, industrial needs. It is also polluted due to hazardous practices of the industries.

  3. Irrigative agricultural fields- Water is needed in a large quantity for growing crops. Farmer owns individual water pumps, which causes decreased groundwater level in that region, causing scarcity and drought. 

  4. Industries - Industries not only harm and pollute the water resources like rivers and lakes, they also require groundwater for working by water pumping devices. The electric power supply source is also Hydroelectric power.

  5. Releasing untreated chemicals into water bodies by the industries. 

  6. Unplanned drainage system:- Throwing of garbage in water bodies pollute them and makes them unfit for use.

  • Solutions for Water Scarcity

  1. Dams:

Dams are a hydraulic structures built to store water for future use. They act as reservoir. They become barrier and restrict the flow of water which can be later used for purposes such as irrigation, domestic use, industrial use, aquaculture, etc.


  1. It is used in Irrigating the feilds.

  2. Used in Electricity Generation:  In the Sutlej-Beas River Basin, The Bhakra- Nangal Dam is used widely for hydel power production and irrigation.

  3. Used as Water supply for domestic purposes.

  4. Used to Supply water for industries and manufacturers.

  5. Used in Flood control:-  The Hirakud Dam in the Mahanadi basin is used for flood control.

  6. Used for Recreational purposes like water parks

  7. Used in Inland Navigation.

  8. Used in Fish Breeding.

Jawaharlal Nehru claimed dams to be "Temples of Modern India '' as they would help in activites like agriculture, development of village economy, blooming of industries, and growth of the urban economy.

  • Disadvantages of Dams

  • Constructions of Dam interrupted the flow of water which caused the irregular flow of sediments, increasing the sedimentation in the reservoir, which caused the livelihood of aquatic animals quite difficult. The dam led to fragmented rivers which caused the migration of aquatic organisms difficult.

  • Local People started getting displaced from their land. 

  • Due to high water availability, all farmers preferred commercial crops, which caused an ecological imbalance.

  • There was an increase in the social gap as they caused disputes among the people wanting their water needs to get prioritized. Even inter-state disputes became common.

  • Flood control dams triggered floods as well because of the sedimentation in the reservoir. When excessive rainfall occured, dams failed to control floods. The release of water from dams caused the floods itself many times.

  • Land degradation: Other than the loss of lives and properties, the flood also eroded soil. 

2. Rainwater Harvesting

Rainwater harvesting is done according to the region and its climatic conditions. It is done in India since ancient times.

  • In Western Himalayas - 'guls' or 'kuls' were formed which were the diversion channels for water for agriculture.

  • In Rajasthan - Rooftop Rainwater harvesting is common.

  • In West Bengal - Inundation channels are formed for irrigation.

  • In Arid and Semi-arid regions - Agricultural fields are used as rain-fed storage structures which allowed the rainwater to be stagnant and made the soil moist. They had large tanks which were as big as a room and were placed in the courtyard of their house, the rainwater from their sloppy roofs would accumulate in the tanks through a pipe.

Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources Notes

Summary of Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Notes

The main points covered in this chapter are:

Water Sources

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Three fourth of the earth is covered with water, but only 2.5 per cent out of the total water volume exists as freshwater. The rest 96.5 per cent is salt water from the ocean. More than 70 per cent of the freshwater source exists as glaciers in Antarctica and high altitude mountain regions of the world. In the world, there is only 30 per cent fresh water which is stored as groundwater. Water resources are renewable, and it gets renewed within a short period. The hydrological cycle makes water a renewable source.

Fresh Water Sources

The freshwater sources include surface water and groundwater. The surface water sources are rivers, lakes, ponds etcetera. The water that is stored underground is also a fresh water source. Both these sources get renewed by rainfall.

Water Scarcity and The Reasons Behind It

Water Scarcity is nothing but a shortage of water. It can happen naturally in the regions which are prone to drought and experience low rainfall.

Several other reasons may lead to water scarcity. These reasons include:

  • Water Scarcity can happen by overexploitation of the water resources. The excessive or unnecessary use of water in various parts of the world is one of the main reasons.

  • In dry areas, more water is required for irrigation purposes. Water is also required more and more because of multiple cropping and for HYV seeds. More food resources are needed as the urbanisation and industrialisation are progressing along with the civilisation.

  • Water is not distributed equally on this planet. In some parts, there is sufficient water available to fulfil all the needs, but in some parts, people suffer from water scarcity.

  • The water quality is deteriorating day by day. It happens because domestic wastes and industrial wastes get into the water sources. Water pollution can also occur as chemical pesticides, and fertilisers get washed away by rainfall and fall directly into the water bodies.

  • Human activities like the immersion of idols and many religious rituals also lead to water pollution, and the water sources become useless. Pumping out the groundwater leads to the falling level of water underground.

Water scarcity also affects the ecological cycle. It is high time to conserve and manage all the water resources.

Measures Taken for Water Conservation

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  • Stoppage of overusing of underground water and it can be recharged by using techniques like rainwater harvesting, watershed development programs etcetera.

  • By avoiding the wastage of water.

  • Water conservation can also be done by using irrigation techniques like drip irrigation, sprinkles etcetera.

Multi-Purpose River Projects and Integrated Water Resources   Management

From ancient times the water is conserved by constructing structures like dams which were used by building stones over water sources. Even now in India, there is a presence of dams in most of the rivers.

Definition of Dam

A dam is a barrier that is being built across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the water flow and by doing so creates a water reservoir, lake or impoundment. The term ‘dam’ refers to the water reservoir, not the whole structure. You can also take a look at the major dams in India map class 10 to have a better understanding.

Most of the dams are built to control floods, but some of them triggered floods. One of the significant movements to save a river is ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’. It was a movement which was mobilised by an NGO and had protesters that include tribal people, farmers, human rights activists and environmentalists. The protest was against a dam called Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada River in Gujarat. The movement focuses on rehabilitation and environmental issues.

Rain Water Harvesting

Rainwater harvesting is a simple method in which rainwater is collected for future usage. Different ways are used for rainwater harvesting. These methods are –

  • In the floodplains of West Bengal, people build inundation channels for irrigation purposes.

  • In the hill regions, people built diversion channels for rainwater harvesting. An excellent example of it is ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ in the Western Himalayas.

  • Rooftop rainwater harvesting is a standard method that is used mostly in the arid and semi-arid regions like Rajasthan. ‘Tankas’ are part of this rooftop rainwater harvesting. It happens mainly in Bikaner, Barmer and some other areas.

CBSE Class 10 Geography Other Chapter Notes

Students can download Class 10 Contemporary India II Revision Notes for all chapters free pdf through the links below.

Important Topics Covered in the Chapter

Following is a list of important topics that are covered under CBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 - Water Resources. Students are advised to read these through before starting out with the revision process:

  • Water

  1. Some Facts and Figures

  • Dams

  • Multi-purpose River Projects

  1. Objectives of Multi-purpose River Projects

  2. Disadvantages of Multi-purpose River Projects

  3. Movements against Multi-purpose River Projects

  • Rainwater Harvesting

  1. How Tankas Work


The Class 10 Revision Notes on Geography Chapter 3 - Water Resources by Vedantu have been prepared by the best teachers who are experienced in the field and have substantial knowledge to understand how to make notes easily consumable for students. Reading these notes definitely be of great help in your revision process for your Class 10 Geography exam.

FAQs on Water Resources Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 3 [Free PDF Download]

1. Explain how water becomes a renewable resource?

Water is considered to be a renewable source. Rainfall is the main reason that the surface water and the groundwater get recharged within a short period due to three processes in the hydrological cycle. These processes are – Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation. Overexploitation of water sources leads to water scarcity. Water scarcity is nothing but the shortage of water, and it may happen due to several reasons like water use in dry season agriculture, water pollution that turns water sources useless etcetera.

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects?

The advantages of multi-purpose river projects include Irrigation, Flood prevention, Hydrolytic electricity generation, Inland navigation, and Water supply for domestic and industrial purposes. The disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects are Aquatic flora and fauna get affected, The water flow gets affected, Land submerged in the surrounding areas, Land rehabilitation problem on a large scale and many ecological consequences.

3. What do you mean by water scarcity according to Chapter 3 Water Resources of Class 10 Geography?  What are its causes?

Water scarcity is the limited availability of water in a region over a specific period. This is mainly due to over-exploitation of the use of water. This over-exploitation has led to unequal access and excessive use of water for different social groups. A growing population like in India has increasing demands for the use of water and it is not available to fulfil everyone’s needs. It's multiple uses have led to this scarcity.  

These solutions are available on Vedantu's official website(vedantu.com) and mobile app free of cost.

4. What are the uses of water resources according to Chapter 3 Water Resources of Class 10 Geography?

Water resources are used for domestic purposes like bathing, cleaning, watering plants, etc. They are also used for other purposes like in irrigation for growing crops and other farming techniques and in industrial houses of multinational corporations. Water is also used to produce Hydroelectricity. The sources of water are limited, but the use of water is unlimited. The use of water has increased manifolds since industrialization and urbanization. The use of water for commercial purposes has also polluted it.

5. What is a dam according to Chapter 3 Water Resources of Class 10 Geography?

A dam is a structure that was earlier used to impound or store rainwater or river water for use in irrigation. But now, dams are used to produce Hydroelectricity, to store water for domestic and commercial purposes, for inland navigation, flood control, fish breeding, and recreational functions. Dams are now referred to as multipurpose projects owing to their multiple uses. Some famous dams in India are Bhakra Nangal Dam, the Hirakud Dam, and the Beas-Sutlej dam.

6. Why are multipurpose projects and large dams facing resistance according to Chapter 3 Water Resources of Class 10 Geography?

In recent times, the development of multipurpose projects and large dams are facing a lot of public scrutiny and resistance. That is because these big projects cause rehabilitation and resettlement on a very large scale. The people who are resettled are not properly compensated. The displacement of people and the natural fauna and flora is a big cost that is paid for these projects. Movements like Narmada Bachao Andolan and the Tehri Dam Andolan are some examples of resistance. 

7. Which is the first state in India to make rainwater harvesting compulsory according to Chapter 3 Water Resources of Class 10 Geography?

The first state in the country to make harvesting of rainwater mandatory for all the houses across the state is Tamil Nadu. All the houses are supposed to have rooftop structures for rainwater harvesting. Legal provisions have been introduced for those who do not abide by this law. If you are seeking notes of this chapter for your preparation, you should get Vedantu’s CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Notes. These are comprehensive and simple to use. 

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