CFT Full Form

Principles and Procedures of CFT Meaning

The CFT full form in English is the complement fixation test. It is a widely used testing procedure for detecting antibodies from a patient’s serum. The analysis is based on a complement, a labile biological serum that causes immune cytolysis. 

The CFT abbreviation is the most accepted terminology used by doctors and pharmacists worldwide. This test has been mostly employed to diagnose infections in patients and prevent further spread of the disease.

Origin of the Test

This idea for this test was first developed by Jules Bordet, who used it to treat syphilis, a widely occurring fatal disease. However, the full meaning of CFT was expanded by August Paul von Wassermann, a German bacteriologist, Albert Neisser, a German dermatologist & venereologist, and Carl Bruck. The Wassermann reaction is also called the Bordet-Wassermann reaction. The test is used for treating liver disease and various types of ailments.

What are the Basic Requirements to Perform the Complete Fixation Test?

This test is divided into several categories, and there are requirements for each of these. Let's check a few:

Requirements of CFT full form in English with Environment

  • A basic complement like a Guinea pig serum

  • Antigens in the form of cardiolipin/washed sheep red blood cell/Viral AG

  • Patients serum Hemolysin who has been inactivated

Requirements for Indicator System

  • Microtiter plates

  • Centrifuge adaptors for the plates

  • Saline mixed with calcium and magnesium

  • Normal color standards

  • Water bath for incubation

Principles of CFT Testing

The full meaning of CFT testing can only be understood if we take a close look at the principles. Complement fixation test works by quantifying antibodies in serum that don't form any visible precipitation when reacted with antigen. So, it is necessary to use compliments for successful serum testing. Complements are widely present in normal serums and composed of 9 essential protein elements.

The CFT abbreviation can find Ag-Ab complexes. The complements, however, can't bind free antibodies. The complement system doesn't have any visible effect on precipitation, and so it becomes necessary to use an indicator system to achieve the result.

The indicator system is coated with sheep RBC and is covered with anti-sheep ones. It is inactivated by heating at 56 degrees Celsius for around 30 minutes.

Why do you Require a Complement Fixation Test?

The purpose of CFT testing is to determine the presence of antibodies. CFT full form is a blood test in which serum is used in a particular antigen.


CFT is a major traditional test and requires a host of reagents to achieve the results. There are multiple versions of this test, but the most commonly used one is a microtiter version developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It is quite a cost-effective test that can be used to detect viral infections.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How Does CFT Work and What are the Results?

CFT stands for Complement Fixation Test. It is a classical method for determining the presence of antibodies in serums. If the serum detects antibodies, the results will bind all the complements together.

2. Where is the Complement Manufactured?

The complement is found in normal serums. It is widely located in the liver and circulated in the blood. When triggered, the proteases fume out proteins and release cytokines and initiate an avalanche of cleavages.

3. What are the Three Pathways of Activating Complements?

The three pathways for activating the complements are classical pathway, MB-lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway, which is the middle way that provides an amplification loop for the other two pathways. These pathways are set off by pathogens binding the surface.