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NCERT Book for Class 12

Last updated date: 28th May 2024
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Class 12 NCERT Books for Physics Free PDF Download

An autonomous organization that designs the syllabus for the Class 12 CBSE board exams, the NCERT Textbooks are used extensively by students and CBSE schools all across the nation.

A perfect guide makes for perfect exam preparation, and the NCERT Physics Book of Class 12 is nothing short of that. Remarkably detailed with Chapters and concepts laid out lucidly, the NCERT Books Free Download PDF Class 12 Physics provides students with a thorough revision for their CBSE Class 12 Physics board exams by simplifying concepts and making them extremely easy to grasp. The Class 12 CBSE NCERT Physics Book PDF download explains concepts in a Chapterwise format, thus leaving no stone unturned where preparing for the CBSE board examinations are concerned.

The Class 12 Physics CBSE NCERT Free PDF Download is primarily designed for students who are preparing for their upcoming Class 12 CBSE board exams. You can access the NCERT Books Download for Class 12 Physics in free PDF download by simply signing up on our website.

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Competitive Exams after 12th Science

NCERT Books for CBSE Class 12 Physics

Physics Textbooks for Class 12 are published by NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training). The updated and extensively revised syllabus in the NCERT Class 12th Physics Textbooks is well known. The NCERT Physics Books follow the most recent exam format and CBSE syllabus.

With the help of the most recent exam papers from each year, NCERT updates the Physics books. The presentation of NCERT's Class 12 Physics books is well-known. NCERT Books Class 12 Physics can be used not only for studying the standard syllabus of several boards, but also for candidates taking competitive exams, Engineering Entrance Exams, and Olympiads.

Students can get the NCERT Class 12 Physics Books in PDF format at any time and from any location. NCERT Physics Books for Class 12 are written by the finest professors in the field who are experts in the subject and have a thorough understanding of it.

Let’s go through some main terminologies you will be dealing with in this Book:

Electric Charge: The property of matter that causes it to produce and experience electric and magnetic effects is known as charge.

Conductors and Insulators: Conductors, such as metals and the ground, are easy for electricity to pass through, while insulators, such as plastic rod and nylon, are difficult to pass through.

Additivity of Charges: Charges are scalars that add up in the same way as real numbers do. It means that if a system has n charges (q1, q2, q3,...,qn), the total charge will be q1 +q2 +... +qn.

Conservation of Charge: An isolated system's total charge is always conserved, meaning that the system's starting and ultimate charges are identical.

Quantisation of Charge: Charge is quantised because it exists as a discrete amount rather than a continuous value.

Charge on an item is expressed mathematically as q=ne, where n is an integer and e is the electronic charge. A physical quantity is said to be quantised when it exists in discrete packets rather than as a continuous amount. As a result, charge has a numerical value.

Electrostatic: The force that is external but conservative is referred to as the electrostatic potential. It's the effort expended by an external force to move a charge s from point r to point p. Between the starting and final points, it is the difference in the potential energy of charges.

Equipotential Surface: It's a surface with a constant potential. Equipotential surfaces are concentric circles centered at a specific point on a point charge.

Potential Energy: The effort done by an external influence in organizing charges in their proper positions is the potential energy stored in a system.

NCERT Book for CBSE Class 12 Physics

Physics is basically the study of the universe and encompasses the way the world works and analyzing its inner layers. Studying Physics will help you get a deeper understanding of how things work around you, from electric circuits to magnetism and the everyday nuances of light and sound. If you're pursuing a career in the sciences, then studying Physics is of paramount importance and a necessity.

The Vedantu Class 12 CBSE NCERT Physics Book PDF download enables you to study the books on which the internal and annual question papers of CBSE exams are based. You can rest assured that only material that is relevant to the latest prescribed CBSE syllabus is included. Also, if you work through these books, you will be able to tackle competitive exams like the IIT-JEE, NEET and other college entrance tests since NCERT material is referenced in those exams as well. Below given are the Chapter wise details for Class 12 Physics NCERT Books.

Chapter 1 – Electric Charges and Fields

In this Chapter, students are explained all about electric charges and fields. In this Chapter students will be explained the reason behind the charge appearing in materials due to rubbing against each other and why the quantization of charge is ignored when it comes to large scale charges. Some of the topics covered in this Chapter are Conductors and Insulators, Basic Properties Of Electric Charge, Forces Between Multiple Charges, Electric Field And Field Lines, Electric Flux, Electric Dipole, Continuous Charge Distribution, and many more. A few important questions related to the theories are also explained. 

Chapter 2 – Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

This Chapter is important in Physics and carries good marks in board examinations. Some of the topics covered in this Chapter are relation between field and potential, potential energy of a system of charges, potential energy in an external field, potential energy of a single charge, potential energy of a dipole in an external field, electrostatics of conductors, capacitors and capacitance, effect of dielectric on capacitance, combination of capacitors, capacitors in series, capacitors in parallel, among the many others. Many important questions related to the subject are also answered in this Chapter. 

Chapter 3 – Current Electricity

The third Chapter of the book speaks about current electricity. Some of the topics covered in the book are electric current and Electric Currents In Conductors, Drift Of Electrons And The Origin Of Resistivity, Resistivity Of Various Materials, mobility, Temperature Dependence Of Resistivity, Combination Of Resistors – Series And Parallel, Cells In Series And In Parallel, Cells, Emf, Internal Resistance, Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s Rules, meter bridge, potentiometer, among many others. Important questions related to the subject have also been answered in this Chapter that will help students learn the concepts well. 

Chapter 4 – Moving Charges and Magnetism

In the 4th Chapter of Class 12 NCERT Physics book, students are taught the concepts of moving charges and magnetism. Many important topics are covered in this Chapter that is crucial for board examinations and competitive exams alike. Some of the important topics covered in this Chapter are magnetic force and field, motion in a magnetic field and motion in combined electric and magnetic fields, cyclotron, magnetic field due to a current element and magnetic field on the axis of a circular current loop, and some other topics too. Important questions related to the subject have been answered in this Chapter to clear the doubts of students.

Chapter 5 – Magnetism and Matter

After a brief introduction of the subject of magnetism, this Chapter delves into the study of magnetism and matter. This Chapter covers important topics like magnetic field lines, the bar magnet, electrostatic analog, the earth’s magnetism, and magnetic intensity, the magnetic properties of materials. The Chapter also perfectly explains what magnetism and matter are all about and how they are related. The Chapter also explains how much torque is required for turning a magnet so that its magnetic moment is at a certain alignment with the field and provides many other examples too.

Chapter 6 – Electromagnetic Induction

The 6th Chapter of the book is dedicated to magnetism and electricity. Some of the topics covered in this Chapter are the Experiments of Faraday and Henry, Magnetic Flux, Lenz’s Law And Conservation Of Energy, Motional Electromotive Force, Eddy Currents, Inductance, A Quantitative Study on Energy Consideration, inductance – mutual and self-inductance. Eddy currents, AC generator, among the many other topics. Numerical problems from these concepts are often part of board examinations and competitive examinations. So students must pay special attention while studying this Chapter.  

Chapter 7 – Alternating Current

The 7th Chapter of NCERT Physics for Class 12 deals with Alternating Current and is a crucial Chapter. It discusses a lot of concepts and is important for the students to follow. Some of the concepts discussed in this Chapter are Ac Voltage Applied To A Resistor, Ac Voltage Applied To An Inductor, Ac Voltage Applied To A Capacitor, Ac Voltage Applied To A Series Lcr Circuit, Representation Of Ac Current And Voltage By Rotating Vectors, transformers, Lc Oscillations, and some other topics too. Apart from these concepts, the Chapter also mentions key points to remember and answers some important questions too. 

Chapter 8 – Electromagnetic Waves

Students of Class 12 who are studying Physics must pay special attention to this Chapter since at least one question is mandatory from this Chapter in the board examinations. After explaining the concept of electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves, the Chapter moves on to discuss Displacement Current, electromagnetic spectrum concepts like radio waves, infrared waves, microwaves, ultraviolet rays, x-rays, gamma rays, visible rays, and much more. The Chapter also teaches students to determine the RMS value of the conduction current and analyze the similarities between conduction current and displacement current.

Chapter 9 – Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

The 9th Chapter of the NCERT Physics for Class 12 book discusses Ray Optics and Optical Instruments. This is a Chapter that holds a lot of importance because it carries a good amount of marks in the examinations. In this Chapter, students shall study the phenomena of reflection, refraction, and dispersion of light by using the ray picture of light. Students shall also study the image formation by plane and spherical reflecting and refracting surfaces by following the basic laws of reflection and refraction. Students shall also learn about the working mechanism of a lot of optical instruments. 

Chapter 10 – Wave Optics

This is a Chapter that is entirely dedicated to wave optics. The topics covered in this Chapter are Huygens Principle, Refraction And Reflection Of Plane Waves, Refraction At A Rarer Medium, The Doppler Effect, Interference Of Light Waves And Young’s Experiment, Resolving Power Of Optical Instruments, Diffraction, The Validity Of Ray Optics, Polarisation by Scattering and by Reflection, The Single Slit, among the many others. The Chapter also has questions and answers to some important concepts that might prove helpful during exams. From this Chapter, derivation, the theory, and numerical problems from various topics are questioned in the exams.

Chapter 11 – Dual Nature of Radiation Matter

Physics is an important subject for all science students of Class 12 and hence they must pay careful attention to the subject. The 11th Chapter deals with the Dual Nature of Radiation Matter and is an important subject. The topics covered in this Chapter are electron emission, Photoelectric Effect, the Experimental Study Of Photoelectric Effect, Photoelectric Effect And Wave Theory Of Light Ex, Particle Nature Of Light, Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation, The Wave Nature Of Matter, among the others. The Chapter also covers some other important topics and answers questions to many important concepts. 

Chapter 12 – Atoms

The 12th Chapter of the book is dedicated to atoms and here, students are taught about advanced concepts of atoms, Rutherford’s model, Paschen series of spectral lines, and many more. The other topics covered are Alpha-Particle Scattering, Alpha-particle trajectory, Spectral series, atomic spectra, Electron orbits, energy levels, Bohr Model Of The Hydrogen Atom, The Line Spectra Of The Hydrogen Atom, energy levels, and De Broglie’s Explanation Of Bohr’s Second Postulate Of Quantisation. There is a questions and answers section in the book that will help students clear the doubts of the topics. 

Chapter 13 – Nuclei 

After covering atoms in the previous Chapter, the 13th Chapter covers the subject of Nuclei. The topics covered in this Chapter include Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus, the size of the nucleus, nuclear force, Mass-energy And Nuclear Binding Energy, radioactivity, law of radioactive decay, gamma decay, beta decay, alpha decay, nuclear energy, nuclear reactor, fission, nuclear fission, Controlled thermonuclear fusion, and many more. All the questions and answers are prepared by experts and follow the NCERT guidelines and the latest CBSE syllabus too. The questions and answers have been specially designed to meet the study requirements of students. 

Chapter 14 – Semiconductor Electronic: Material, Devices, and Simple Circuits

The 14th Chapter of the NCERT Books Class 12 Physics includes topics such as Classification Of Metals, Conductors And Semiconductors, Extrinsic and intrinsic Semiconductors, p-n Junction formation, p-n junction diode under forward and reverse bias, Application Of Junction Diode As A Rectifier, Junction Transistor, Special Purpose P-n Junction Diodes, Basic transistor circuit configurations and transistor characteristics, Feedback amplifier and transistor oscillator, Digital Electronics And Logic Gates, and many more topics. There are questions based on calculating output frequency of a half wave and full wave rectifier and finding the input signal and base current of a CE-Transistor amplifier, etc too. 

Chapter 15 – Communication Systems

The last Chapter of the book discusses the various communication systems like the internet, television, radio, etc. The topics covered in this Chapter include Elements Of A Communication System, Bandwidth Of Signals, Propagation Of Electromagnetic Waves, the Size of the antenna or aerial, effective power radiated by an antenna, Amplitude Modulation, Production Of Amplitude Modulated Wave, the necessity of modulation, and other topics related to communications too. Important questions related to these concepts have been answered at the end of the Chapter to help the students understand the Chapter concepts better.

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Taking the stress away from studies by giving students the comfort and space they need and by making learning fun, Vedantu has been helping students gain clarity in various subjects and transform weak and problematic subject areas into strengths that last for a lifetime. We help students prepare for various competitive tests too besides their regular Class 12 board exams at Vedantu.

FAQs on NCERT Book for Class 12

1. What is Physics?

Physics is the study of the cosmos in general, and it includes the study of how the world operates as well as the examination of its deeper layers. Physics as a subject can help any student gain a deeper insight and better knowledge of how things work around him or you. This includes everything from electric circuits to magnetism, as well as the subtleties of some of the most common things we witness in our daily lives, such as light and sound. If you want to chalk out a career in the field of science, then Physics should be an integral part of our studies from a very young age. 

2. Is the NCERT syllabus student friendly?

Yes, the NCERT syllabus is very much student friendly. The content in the book is written prioritizing student’s understanding and vision. The NCERT syllabus focuses mostly on this book in order to make it more student-friendly and useful for both students and those preparing for competitive exams. Based on the syllabuses of many boards, the book offers a complete Physics section. NCERT Physics Books for Class 12 are fully compatible with practically all state and central boards of education in India.

3. What is the importance of Physics?

From can openers, light bulbs, and mobile phones to muscles, lungs, and brains; from paintings, piccolos, and pirouettes to cameras, cars, and cathedrals; and from earthquakes, tsunamis, and storms to quarks, DNA, and black holes, Physics helps us comprehend how the world around us works. From the mundane to the profound to the poetic, there's something for everyone.

Physics aids in the organization of the universe. It deals with the fundamentals and aids in the recognition of links between seemingly unrelated things.

Physics provides us with great tools for expressing our creativity, seeing the world in new ways, and changing it.

4. What are the career options after taking Physics?

Career options in Physics are immense. In fact, in some cases they are even  more than that of any other discipline. It can lead to a variety of professional prospects in fields such as research and development, climate and weather change, military service, and healthcare, among others. It is one of the most fundamental areas of science, involving the study of cosmic behaviour and providing students with job options not just in engineering but also in fields such as nuclear Physics, meteorology, and astronomy. A Physics student learns atomic and molecular Physics, thermal Physics, statistical Physics, and a variety of other areas from which to choose their research topic. A career in Physics necessitates excellent logical reasoning abilities, problem-solving abilities, and a methodical approach.

5. Is Physics a difficult subject?

When compared to Chemistry or Biology, many students find Physics challenging. Physics is a cumulative science. If you haven't grasped the fundamental ideas but have passed your examinations, you will quickly catch up as you learn more about Physics. As a result, you must not overlook the fundamentals. Competitive tests don't just evaluate your Textbook knowledge; they also test your ability to apply what you've learned. Only clear fundamentals and improved skills in mathematics, graphs, interpretation, and logic will allow you to address application-oriented challenges. You may attempt to make a subject easy, fascinating, and beneficial once you understand why it appears to be tough.