CBSE Class 10 Economics Chapter 5 Notes - Consumer Rights

Consumer Rights Class 10 Notes Economics Chapter 5 - PDF Download

Consumer Rights are referred to a set of laws that represent the right to be informed about the quantity, quality, purity, potency, price of goods and their standards so that the consumer is protected against all sorts of unfair trade practices. The Consumer Bill of Rights upholds the right to safety of every citizen. The chapter on Consumer Rights Class 10 speaks about these rights which every consumer must be aware of in a market situation. And, if a person feels that any of his rights are violated at any point in time, he can take legal action against the producer/seller of the good(s). 

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CBSE Class 10 Economics Chapter 5 Notes - Consumer Rights part-1

Access Class 10 Social Science (Economics) Chapter 5 - Consumer Rights Notes

Consumer:

A consumer is someone who buys a thing for his or her personal use and consumes it. A consumer cannot resale the good, product, or service, but he or she can use it to support himself or herself. A customer is any individual or group of individuals who, in addition to the buyer of the product or services, consumes the product with his or her permission. To put it another way, the consumer is the person who uses the goods or services.


Consumer in the Marketplace: 

  • The market is not always a fair playing field, and consumers, even in great numbers, are dispersed. This permits consumers to be exploited by producers who are few but large and powerful.

  • Informal moneylenders are a good example of this. Farmer Swapna, for example, had borrowed money and agreed to sell the product to them at a considerably reduced price. She was also compelled to sell her land after she failed to repay the money on time. This demonstrates how market consumers can be addressed.

  • Markets are inherently unjust since there are a few huge producers with a lot of power and a lot of tiny consumers who may or may not know each other. Large corporations find it easier to engage in unethical business practises and propagate false information through advertising and spending money.

  • With vast monetary and social resources, they may fabricate a tale in their favour, regardless of fact. Companies, for example, promoted milk powder as the finest supplement for infants, even over mother's milk, and tobacco commercials, which are destructive to people's lives.

  • Adulteration and other malpractices, such as erroneous weight measures, are other ways in which vendors might take advantage of customers.


Consumer Movement:

People were dissatisfied with the rampant production malpractices. There were no existing rules or regulations that penalised such behaviour among the public.

The consumer was responsible for making a thoughtful purchase, and they avoided buying from sellers/goods with whom they had a terrible experience. Consumer movements started because of widespread dissatisfaction with such practises.

The consumer movement as a "social force" in India arose from the need to safeguard and promote consumers' interests against unethical and unfair trade practises. As a result of all these efforts, the Indian government took a huge step forward in 1986. It is responsible for enforcing the Consumer Protection Act of1986, also known as COPRA.


Consumer International: 

The UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection were adopted by the United Nations in 1985. This was a mechanism for countries to enact consumer protection laws, as well as for consumer advocacy groups to pressure their governments to do so. This has formed the cornerstone for consumer activism on a global scale.


Consumer Rights:

1. Right to Safety: Many goods and services can endanger our lives and cause major harm if not handled appropriately. Given the gravity of the situation, ensuring one's safety is critical. 

Producers must adhere to strict rules and regulations in order to maintain safety standards. Despite the regulation, it is poorly implemented, allowing defective products to continue to dominate the market. The consumer movement is likewise insufficient to combat these issues.

2. Right to be Informed: We frequently discover printed information on the things we buy, or it comes in the form of a manual. All of this is detailed in the products or services since consumers have a right to know about the commodities they purchase. Consumers can request a refund or replacement if a product does not conform to the information supplied.

The Right to Information Act (RTI), which makes all public offices in India responsible to any person, was recently enacted as a much larger statute known as the RTI Act.

3. Right to Choose: The consumer has the option of selecting the product to be purchased. He cannot be forced to purchase something that he does not want. 

This means that we can acquire various things from various sources without being obligated to buy a specific combination. Nobody can force oneself to purchase something that is not necessary.

4. Right to Seek Redressal: If a consumer has been exploited by a producer, he has the right to seek a remedy. He has the right to be paid by the producer/trader if the product causes him harm.

5. Right to Represent: If a dispute between the customer and the seller cannot be resolved, the customer may seek a remedy through the local consumer court. If his district court representation is dismissed, he can appeal to the state level, then to the federal level.


Justice for Consumer:

  • Under the COPRA, consumer tribunals were established to offer justice to consumers whose rights had been abused.

  • Consumer courts are three-tier quasi-judicial entities.

  1. The District Forum is a district-level court that hears matters involving claims of up to Rs. 20 lakh.

  2. The State Commission is a state-level court that hears disputes involving claims of between Rs. 20 lakh and Rs. 1 crore.

  3. The National Commission is a national level court that hears cases involving claims above Rs. 1 crore.


How to Stay Informed: 

  • We will be able to discriminate and make informed choices as customers once we are aware of our rights when purchasing various goods and services.

  • The enactment of COPRA resulted in the creation of distinct Consumer Affairs departments in both the federal and state governments. The ISI, Agmark, or Hallmark logo provides consumers with the confidence of quality when purchasing goods and services.


Advancing the Consumer Movement: 

India is one of the few countries with dedicated consumer redress courts. In India, the 24th of December is celebrated as National Consumers' Day. Consumer awareness is steadily increasing in our country after more than 25 years since the introduction of COPRA. We need individuals to put up a voluntary effort and actively participate in the consumer movement for it to move forward quickly.


Important Questions and Answers

1. Why do consumers need rights and systems to protect themselves in the market?

Ans: Consumers require rights and systems because of the following :

1. Consumers require regulations and enforcement agencies to safeguard them from manufacturers' mistreatment. Consumer rights give customers complete freedom and protect them from being exploited by vendors.

2. There are consumers who buy things and producers who make and sell those goods in the marketplace.

3. Consumers are exploited by producers because they have money and power. There have been occasions where producers have used deceptive tactics to obtain an unfair advantage over purchasers.


2. Provide a few examples where consumers can be exploited and mention which rights protect them.

Ans: Given below are the two examples :

1. Filing for a job can be a time-consuming process. After submitting all our credentials and taking an entrance exam, we impatiently await the results. Some government agencies, on the other hand, take an eternity to release the results. In such circumstances of authority carelessness, the applicant has the right to know about the status of the employment. They can make a request to the relevant government department under the RTI Act.

2. When you get a new gas connection, gas supply dealers frequently urge that you buy a stove from them. This is an example of a breach of the consumer's right to choose. Since the right to choose is denied, the consumer can submit a claim in consumer court for compensation by claiming the right to redress.


3. Outline the evolution of consumer movements in India.

Ans: There are numerous elements that have contributed to the emergence of India's consumer movement. 

  • It began as a "social force" to safeguard and promote consumer interests in the face of unfair and unethical trading practices. 

  • Extreme food scarcity, black marketing, hoarding and food adulteration drove the consumer movement to organise in the 1960s. Consumer organisations spent most of their time writing articles and staging exhibitions until the 1970s.

  • Recently, there has been an increase in the number of consumer groups concerned about ration shop abuses and overcrowding of public transportation vehicles. 

  • The Consumer Protection Act, often known as COPRA, was adopted by the Indian government in 1986. This was a significant stride forward in India's consumer movement.


4. Explain Agmark and its importance for goods.

Ans:  Some consumer products require a particular certification to ensure their safety in accordance with the regulatory body's stated requirements. Agriculture Mark, or AGMARK, is a certification mark used in India to ensure the quality of agricultural products. AGMARK is a third-party assurance system for agricultural products produced and consumed in India. The primary objective is to give customers high-quality, unadulterated goods. The classification can be used for both domestic and international reasons. Food goods can be detrimental to people's health and life if they are consumed, hence this is an important tag to have on them. Consumers must be well-informed when deciding whether to seek out the Agmark certification logo.


5. A consumer purchased a branded product worth Rs.30,000. Upon using it for a few days, it exploded and burned the hand of the consumer. Explain what this consumer should do according to the COPRA?

Ans: Following are the steps that need to be followed according to the COPRA:

1. The consumer is required to have all documentation relating to the product's purchase because the injury caused here is life-threatening.

2. They might seek help from a Consumer Protection Council in their area to file a complaint against the manufacturer of their goods.

3. Then they must file a lawsuit in district court seeking compensation from the producer for harm caused by the product.

4. They can analyse the amount of compensation they can claim with the help of lawyers and the Consumer Forum. Nevertheless, depending on the severity of the hand injury, the compensation claim must be presented in court, which will ultimately decide the case.


6. How is consumer awareness spread in India?

Ans: The practise of making consumers aware of their rights as consumers is known as consumer awareness. It gives them the ability to demand product details and take legal action if they are misused. Consumer awareness can be spread in three different ways.

1. Individual consumers: They can enlighten their friends and family about their rights as customers and raise consumer awareness.

2. Consumer Groups: These are groups of people who band together to monitor and combat exploitation. To raise consumer awareness, they write articles, arrange exhibitions, and so forth.

3. Consumer Affairs department in both the state and central government: This department uses mass media, like television and newspapers, to disseminate information on consumer rights and legal remedies.


Revision Notes for Class 10 Economics Chapter 5 Notes - Consumer Rights

Points to Highlight in a Project on Consumer Rights for Class 10 PDF

The basic eight rights of consumers that follow the United Nations guidelines and that must be mentioned in a project on Consumer Rights for Class 10 are: 

  1. The Right to Safety - They should get protection against production, products, services and processes that are dangerous to life and health.

  2. The Right to Be Informed - They should be given valid information while making a choice and should be secured against labelling, dishonesty and misleading advertisement.

  3. The Right to Choose - They should be allowed to choose from a variety of products with the promise of good quality.

  4. The right to be heard - Their interest must be taken into consideration and represented in the execution and/or making of policies and also, in the development of services and products.

  5. The Right to Satisfaction of Basic Needs - They should get access to services, essential goods, shelter, clothing, sanitation, healthcare and education.

  6. The Right to Redress - They should get fair settlements including compensation regarding shoddy goods, misrepresentation or unsatisfactory services.

  7. The Right to Consumer Education - They should have access to knowledge and skills which are needed in order to be confident and informed about the services and goods and about consumer rights and how to exercise those rights.

  8. The Right to a Healthy Environment - They should be provided with an environment where they can live and work; an environment that is non-threatening and takes care of their present welfare as well as that of the future generations.


Project on Consumer Rights for Class 10 - PDF Download

Project on Consumer Rights on Class 10 CBSE: Exploitative Factors

Factors that cause the exploitation of consumers are: 

1. Limited Information: As a reason for being a capitalist country seller can produce any service or goods of his or her choice. And as a result of having less information about the particular product, a consumer can make the wrong choice and a result loses money.

2. Limited Supplies: Consumer exploitation also happens when a particular good is less in quantity and the seller can take any amount of money from the one who buys it. 

3. Illiteracy: Illiteracy is one of the most important reasons for the exploitation of consumers. It directly affects the consumers as they are exploited for not having enough knowledge about the product. 

4. Limited Competition: when a single producer is allowed to have control over a product then it does not allow the product to reach to other sellers and hence manipulation of price occurs. 


Consumer Movement 

The consumer movement is also a very important part of consumer rights project Class 10.  The term consumer movement refers to the non-profit groups who promote protection to a consumer through a well-organized movement. It advocated about the rights and regulations of the consumers when they are breached by any action of the corporation. The consumer movement is also a subcategory of disciplines of consumerism.


Consumer Movement Growth in India

Like all other countries, India too has its consumer movement group. It was originated to protect and promote consumers' interest against unethical, unfair, and fraudulent practices. At first, it brought a common outlook that characterized manufactures and traders as the people wanting to maximise profits using fair means with scant regard towards the consumer. The consumer movement act in India is popularly known as the Consumer Protection Act 1986, also called COPRA.


Did You Know?

  • National Consumer Rights Day is celebrated on December 24 in all over the country as the Consumer Protection Act 1986 that was enacted on this day in the year 1986.

  • March 15 is celebrated as “World Consumer Right Day”. This is an annual day for solidarity and celebration in the form of an international movement.

  • The information given on the pack of goods is ingredients used, price, batch number, date of manufacture, expiry date and address of the manufacturer. Every individual should have a look at all of this information before buying a good.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. “Rules and regulations are required for the protection of consumers in the marketplace”. - Justify the statement.

Proper rules and regulations are needed to protect the consumer in the marketplace because:

  • A lot of time dealers indulge themselves and others within unfair practices and trades like under-measurement, underweight, hoarding, etc.

  • Half of the customers are not aware of the rights that they have and as a result, are deceived by suppliers.

  • Sellers have a habit of making fake promises to the consumers about the quality and durability of the products through jingles and catchy advertisements.

These points should be properly highlighted in a project on consumer rights for Class 10 - CBSE syllabus.

2. What precaution should a consumer take while purchasing medicines from the market?

Fraud cases or scope of being deceived is a lot reduced if the consumers take the following precaution while purchasing medicines from a store:

  • Should not forget to check the expiry date of the particular medicine while he or she is purchasing a medicine.

  • Should check all the details that are given in the packet which includes direction to use, risks and side effects.

  • Should not forget to ask for bills or cash memos of the medicine purchased.

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