Download Free PDF of Notes for CBSE Class 12 Open Economy Macroeconomics Chapter 6
Revision Notes for Class 12 Open Economy Macroeconomics Chapter 6 of Macroeconomics are provided here as per the new syllabus prescribed by CBSE. The Revision Notes are very helpful for students in their preparation for examinations. Students should go through these important questions of Chapter 6 - Open Economy Macroeconomics with solutions to score better in the exam.
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In the Chapter of Open Economy Macroeconomics, important concepts of Open Economy are discussed. These revision notes are prepared by our subject matter experts in easy language so that students can grab the complex concepts of Open Economy Macroeconomics easily through solutions.
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Access Class 12 Macroeconomics Chapter 6 – Open Economy Macroeconomics
Open Economy: It is one that conducts business with other countries in a range of methods. The majority of modern economies are open.
Balance of Payment (BOP): It is a record of all transactions that occurred between firms in a particular country and the rest of the world over a certain time period, such as a quarter or a year.
Accounts of Balance of Payment:
1. Current Account: It is the record of goods and services traded as well as transfer payments. It encompasses a country's most important activities, such as capital markets and services.
Two Components of the Current Account:
Balance of Trade (BOT): It is the difference between the value of a country’s exports and imports of goods over a specified timeframe. The export of products is recorded as a credit in the BOT, whereas the import of goods is recorded as a debit. It is also referred to as the Trade Balance.
Balance of Invisibles: The difference between a country’s exports and imports of invisible over a certain time frame is known as the balance of invisible. Services, transfers, and income movements between countries are all examples of invisible.
2. Capital Account: All overseas asset transactions are recorded in the Capital Account. An asset is any type of wealth that may be held, such as money, stocks, bonds, government debt, and so on. The purchase of assets is recorded as a debit item on the capital account.
Components of Capital Account:
a. Direct Investment: Equity Capital, FDI, Reinvested Earning, and other Direct Capital Flows.
b. Portfolio Investment: Offshore Funds, FII.
External Borrowings: Includes Short-term Debt, External Commercial Borrowings.
External Assistance: Multilateral and Bilateral Loans, Government Aid, Inter-governmental Aid.
Deficit of Balance of Payment Account:
When a country has a balance of payments deficit, it imports more goods, capital, and services than it exports. It must take from other countries in order to pay for its imports.
A deficit in the balance of payment happens when total payment surpasses total receipts; ergo BOP = Credit < Debit.
A deficit of the balance of payment can be amended through an official reserve deal which signifies the sale of foreign exchange by the Reserve Bank.
When international economic transactions are made for reasons other than bridging the balance of payments gap, they are referred to as autonomous transactions.
One reason might be to make money. In the balance of payment, these items are referred to as “above the line” items.
This type of transactions are free of the condition of the balance of payment account.
Autonomous items allude to those international economic exchanges, which happen because of some economic intention, for example, profit maximisation.
The gap in the balance of payments, or whether there is a deficit or surplus in the balance of payments, determines accommodating transactions, also known as
“below the line” items. In other words, the net consequences of autonomous transactions determine them.
Accommodating transactions are repaying capital exchanges that are intended to address the disequilibrium in the balance of payments, i.e., the autonomous items.
If the balance of payment has a surplus or deficit, accommodating transactions are carried out on purpose to balance the balance of payment's surplus or deficit.
Errors and Omissions:
It is difficult to keep accurate records of all international transactions. As a result, in addition to the current and capital accounts, there is a third element of the balance of payment called errors and omissions, which reflects this.
The entries made under this head relate for the most part to leads and lags in the detailing of exchang
It is a balancing entry that is expected to counterbalance the exaggerated or underestimated components.
Foreign Exchange Market:
The foreign exchange market is the market where national currencies are exchanged for one another.
Commercial banks, foreign exchange brokers, other authorized dealers, and monetary authorities are the main participants in the foreign exchange market.
The foreign exchange markets are the first and most established financial markets and remain the premise whereupon the remainder of the financial edifice is built. It provides global liquidity, ideally with reasonable stability.
Foreign Exchange Rate: An exchange rate is the worth of a country's currency versus that of another nation or an economic zone, also termed as Forex rate. Most of the trade rates are free-floating and will rise or fall based on market interest on the lookout. A few monetary forms are not free-floating and have limitations. It connects different countries' currencies and allows for cost and price comparisons across territorial boundaries.
1. Demand for Foreign Exchange: People require foreign exchange because they want to buy goods and services from other countries, send gifts abroad, and buy financial assets from a specific country. The demand for foreign exchange falls as the flexible exchange rate rises and vice versa.
2. Supply of Foreign Exchange: Foreign currency flows into the home country for the following reasons - a country's exports lead to foreigners purchasing its domestic goods and services; foreigners send gifts or make transfers, and foreigners purchase a home country’s assets. The foreign exchange supply has a positive relationship with the foreign exchange rate. When the foreign exchange rate rises, so does the supply of foreign exchange, and vice versa.
Flexible Exchange Rate: The market forces of demand and supply determine this exchange rate. It is also referred to as a floating exchange rate.
An increase in the exchange rate indicates that the price of foreign currency (dollar) in terms of domestic currency (rupees) has risen. This is referred to as depreciation of the domestic currency (rupees) in terms of foreign currency(dollars).
Appreciation of the domestic currency (rupees) in terms of foreign currency (dollars) occurs when the price of domestic currency (rupees) increases in relation to foreign currency (dollars) (dollars).
Merits of Flexible Exchange Rate:
There is no need to keep foreign exchange reserves.
As a result, the ‘balances of payments’ are automatically adjusted.
To remove impediments to capital and trade transfers.
Improves resource allocation efficiency.
It eliminates the issue of currency undervaluation or overvaluation.
It encourages foreign exchange-based venture capital.
Demerits of Flexible Exchange Rate:
Future exchange rate fluctuations.
Is a deterrent to international trade and investment.
It contributes to market uncertainty.
Fixed Exchange Rate: The government fixes the exchange rate at a specific level in this exchange rate system. The goal of a fixed exchange rate system is to maintain the value of a currency within a narrow spectrum.
Devaluation occurs in a fixed exchange rate system when a government action raises the exchange rate, causing the domestic currency to become cheaper.
In a fixed exchange rate system, a revaluation occurs when the government lowers the exchange rate, making the domestic currency more expensive.
Merits of Fixed Exchange Rate:
Exchange rate stability.
There is no room for speculation.
Encourages capital mobility and international trade.
Attracts foreign investment.
It forces the government to keep inflation under control.
Demerits of Fixed Exchange Rate:
a. In relation to the balance of payments, there are no automatic adjustments i.e., it forestalls changes for monetary standards that become under-or over-esteemed.
b. Requiring a huge pool of reserves to help the currency of a country in the event that it goes under pressure.
It could lead to currency undervaluation or overvaluation.
It undercuts the goal of free markets.
Determination of Equilibrium Foreign Exchange Rate: The equilibrium foreign exchange rate is the rate at which demand and supply of foreign exchange are equitable. It is determined by market forces, i.e., demand for and supply of foreign exchange, in a free market situation. The demand for foreign exchange and the
exchange rate has an inverse relationship. There is a direct relationship between foreign exchange supply and exchange rate. Because of the aforementioned reasons, the demand curve is sloped downward, and the supply curve is sloped upward. The equilibrium foreign exchange rate is determined graphically by the intersection of the demand and supply curves.
Managed Floating: It is a hybrid of a flexible exchange rate system, known as the float, and a fixed rate system, known as the managed part. This exchange rate system enables a country's central bank to intervene on a regular basis in foreign exchange markets to moderate exchange rate movements whenever such actions are deemed appropriate.
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MacroEconomics Class 12 Chapter 6 PDF Download
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Chapter 6 Macroeconomics Class 12 Notes
Balance of Payment - The balance of payment in an accounting year is a systematic and comprehensive record of every economic transaction between the resident of a particular country and the ROW (rest of the world).
Accounts of Balance of Payment
There are two types of accounts of the balance of payment:
Current Account - This is a record of unilateral transfers and import or export of goods and services.
Capital Account - All the transactions like sales and purchase of foreign assets between normal residents of a country and the rest of the world (during an accounting year) are recorded in capital accounts.
Comparison of Current and Capital Accounts
Components of Current Account
Components of Capital Account
Visible items - This comprises the import or export of goods.
It has foreign direct investments.
Invisible items This comprises the import or export of services.
The transactions are unilateral transfers
Here the transactions are portfolio investments.
It shows the net income of the country.
It shows the net change in the ownership of national assets.
Balance of Trade - The difference between a country’s import and export value within an accounting year is called BOT or balance of trade. It is the largest component of a country’s BOP (Balance of payment). If a country imports more goods and services than it exports in value, then the country has a trade deficit. Whereas, when a particular country exports more goods and services than imports, then the country has a trade surplus.
Autonomous Items - In a balance of payment, those items or transactions related to maximizing profit rather than maintaining equilibrium in the BOP are called accounting items. In a balance of payment a/c, accounting items are recorded as the first line items before the trade deficit or trade surplus is calculated. In the balance of payment, these line items are also referred to as “Above the line items.”
Accommodating Items - Certain transactions in the balance of payment restore its identity. Such transactions are called accommodating items, and they occur because of other activities in the balance of payment. These line items are also referred to as “Below the line items.”
The Deficit of BOP Account - A deficit in the balance of payments happens when the value of the total inflow of foreign exchange on account of autonomous transactions is less than total outflows.
Foreign Exchange Rate - Foreign exchange Rate is the rate at which one can exchange one unit of a country’s currency with that of another country’s currency. In other words, the exchange rate is the price of one country’s currency in terms of another country’s currency.
System of Exchange Rate
There are two systems of exchange rate:
Fixed Exchange Rate - In this system, the rate of exchange is fixed and determined by the government or the monetary authority of the country.
Flexible Exchange Rate - This is also known as the floating exchange rate and in this system, the forces of market and demand and supply of foreign exchange determine the exchange rate.
Devaluation of a Currency - When the external value of a currency is officially lowered by the government or the monetary authority of a country then that is called the devaluation of a currency. This lowering of domestic currency is for all other foreign currencies. This is done under the fixed exchange rate system by the government’s order.
The Class 12 CBSE Macroeconomics Chapter 6 - Open Economy Macroeconomics notes serve as a valuable resource for students preparing for their examinations. These free PDF downloads offer a concise yet comprehensive overview of the chapter, covering essential concepts related to an open economy's macroeconomic aspects. By utilizing these notes, students can gain a better understanding of balance of payments, foreign exchange rates, and their impact on the country's economy. The convenience of accessing these notes on various devices makes them an accessible and helpful tool for self-study. However, it is important to use these notes in conjunction with the textbook and seek guidance from teachers for a holistic and effective exam preparation.