PVC Full Form

What is PVC (PolyVinyl Chloride)?

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC or Vinyl) is an affordable and adaptable thermoplastic polymer generally utilized in the building and development industry to deliver entryway and window profiles, pipes (drinking and wastewater), wire and link protection, clinical gadgets and so on. It is the world's third-biggest thermoplastic material by volume after Polyethylene and Polypropylene. It is a white, strong material accessible in powder structure or granules. Because of its adaptable properties, for example, lightweight, tough, minimal effort and simple processability, PVC is currently supplanting customary structure materials like wood, metal, solid, elastic, earthenware production and so forth in a few applications.

Essential Forms of PVC

Here are some essential forms of PVC described as: 

  • Polyvinyl Chloride is mainly accessible in two general classes: Flexible and Rigid. Be that as it may, there are more sorts like CPVC, PVC-O, and PVC-M.

  • Plasticized or Flexible PVC (Density: 1.1-1.35 g/cm3): Flexible PVC is framed by the expansion of good plasticizers to PVC which bring down the crystallinity. These plasticizers demonstrate ointments by bringing about a much more clear and adaptable plastic. This kind of PVC is once in a while called PVC-P.

  • Unplasticized or Rigid PVC (Density: 1.3-1.45 g/cm3): It is a hardened and financially savvy plastic with high protection from sway, water, climate, synthetic concoctions and destructive conditions. This sort of PVC is otherwise called UPVC, PVC-U, or uPVC.

  • Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride or Perchlorovinyl: It is set up by the chlorination of PVC pitch. High chlorine content bestows high solidness, concoction strength and fire retardancy. CPVC can withstand a more extensive scope of temperatures.

  • Molecular Oriented PVC or PVC-O: It is framed by revamping the formless structure of PVC-U into an organized layer. Bi-pivotally situated PVC has improved physical qualities (solidness, weariness obstruction, lightweight and so on.).

  • Modified PVC or PVC-M: It is an amalgam of PVC framed by the expansion of changing operators, bringing about upgraded strength and effect properties.

How is PVC Fabricated?

Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) is created from the chlorination of ethylene and pyrolysis of the subsequent ethylene dichloride (EDC) in a splitting unit. PVC (glass change temperature: 70-80°C) is created by polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). The well-known techniques used to fabricate PVC economically are:

  •  Suspension PVC (S-PVC)

  •  Mass or Emulsion (E-PVC)

Suspension PVC (S-PVC) Process

In a pressure-tight reactor, the monomer is presented with a polymerization initiator and different added substances. Run of the mill suspension polymerized PVC has a mean molecule size of 100-150 µm with a scope of 50-250 µm. S-PVC grades are figured to meet a broad scope of prerequisites, for example, high plasticizer ingestion for adaptable items or high mass thickness and great powder stream required for inflexible expulsion.

Mass or Emulsion (E-PVC)

In this procedure, surfactants (cleansers) are utilized to scatter the vinyl chloride monomer in water. The essential particles are strong, smooth-surfaced circles which are grouped into unpredictable moulded totals with a run of the mill mean molecule size of 40-50 µm with a scope of 0.1-100 µm. E-PVC gums are utilized in a wide scope of the claim to fame applications, for example, covering, plunging, or spreading.

Key Properties of PVC Polymer

PVC is an extremely flexible and financially savvy material. Its primary properties and advantages include:

  •  Electrical Properties: PVC is a decent protection material on account of its great dielectric quality.

  •  Toughness: PVC is impervious to enduring, substance decaying, erosion, stun and scraped spots. It is in this way the favoured decision for some long-life and open-air items.

  •  Fire Retardancy: Because of its high chlorine content, PVC items are self-quenching. Its oxidation list is ≥ 45. Antimony trioxide has been utilized widely, generally mixed with phosphate ester plasticizers, giving magnificent fire execution and mechanical properties.

  •  Cost/Performance Ratio: PVC has great physical and mechanical properties and gives astounding cost-execution favourable circumstances. It has a long life expectancy and needs low upkeep.

  •  Mechanical Properties: PVC is scraped area safe, lightweight and can be used extremely .

  •  Chemical Resistance: PVC is impervious to every single inorganic compound. It has generally excellent opposition against weakened acids, weakened soluble bases and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

Applications Of PVC 


PVC plastic is used to make a calfskin like material called rexine. This kind of impersonation calfskin is utilized to make coats, shoes, jeans, and upholstery. PVC garments are less expensive than latex, calfskin and elastic and are broadly accessible.


As per "PVC Pipe and Fittings: Underground Solutions for Water and Sewer Systems in North America," around half of all PVC plastic is utilized in the production of funnels, which are utilized in modern and civil applications. PVC pipes are solid, lightweight and low-receptive, making them appropriate in sterile, underground-wiring and water-conveyance applications.

Electrical Wires

PVC plastic is generally used to shape the protecting material on electrical wires. It is moderate and impervious to warmth and it offers an astounding scraped spot and patch obstruction. PVC is fire retardant, substance and oil-safe, precisely steady, sway safe, flexible and due to its biocides, forestalls the development of microbes.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is PVC in Chemistry?

The full form of pvc stands for Poly Vinyl Chloride. It is a synthetic product that accounts for the world’s most widely produced plastic polymer. It accounts for the production of around 40million tons per year.

2. Is PVC Harmful?

Yes in some ways PVC can be harmful. It is non-biodegradable and can clog drains and water bodies causing pollution. It accounts for some health hazards and environmental issues like air and water pollution due to the release of toxins during its production.

3. What is PVC used in?

PVC is used in the production of raincoats, electric cables, cars, structural frames for windows and door, Toys, healthcare products, packaging materials, furniture, pipes and many more. In some cases, PVC can replace rubber.