Paired or Correlative and Compound Conjunctions

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What is a Conjunction?

A conjunction is a word that joins two words, phrases or clauses or sentences. It is defined as a word that joins clauses to make a sentence and tells how the meanings of the clauses relate to each other. Conjunction can also be called a joiner, connector or sentence linker. 


Kinds of Conjunctions

There are three types of conjunctions. They are:

  1. Coordinating Conjunctions

  2. Subordinating Conjunctions

  3. Correlative Conjunctions

In this segment, we will learn about Correlative or paired conjunctions.

Coordinating Conjunctions may join single words or they may join groups of words but they always join elements of the same kind. They join either subject and subject or verb phrase and verb phrase or sentence and sentence. Correlative Conjunctions on the other hand also connect sentence elements of the same kind but unlike coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. 


The Correlative or Paired Conjunctions are:

either…. or

neither… nor

both…. and

not only….. but also

whether …. as

whether … or

It is important to note here that when these correlatives join two sentences the structure after each conjunction to be the same. Mark the following structure. It applies to all correlatives.

either + noun phrase, or + noun phrase

either + verb or verb phrase, or + verb or verb phrase

either + adverb or adverb phrase, or + adverb or adverb phrase

either + adjective or phrase, or + adjective or phrase.

Note: When singular and plural subjects are joined, the subject closest to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural. 


Example:

He is either a good singer or an excellent dancer. ( the underlined are noun phrases)

He either runs fast or drives fast. ( the underlined are verb phrases)

He draws neither neatly nor properly. (the underlined are adverbs)

He is both strong and intelligent. (the underlined are adjectives)

The boy is not only very healthy but also very happy. (the underlined are adjective phrases)

 

Use of Correlative Conjunctions

Let us see each paired or correlative conjunctions one by one with examples.


1. Both… and

I both respect and have gratitude for my class teacher.

He is both a writer and an environmentalist.


2. Either…. or

Either Sheetal or Priyanka is coming today.

He is either a chef or a helper.


3. Neither… nor

Neither Dilip nor Mohan is trustworthy.

He is neither a football player nor a cricketer.


4. Though (although) …. yet

Though you work very hard, yet you are doing well in exams.

Though she is my friend, yet I cannot help criticizing his speech.


5. Whether …. or

I have to go to tuitions whether I like it or not.

6. Not only….. but also

He was not only taken to prison but also given a sound beating.

Not only did he pass, but also got a first-class.


7. No sooner….. than 

No sooner had I reached the bus stop, than the bus arrived.

Ramesh had no sooner opened the box than everybody was amazed.


8. Hardly …. when 

I had hardly stepped out of my house when it began to rain.


9. Such…. as

Such people as play false should be avoided.

He is not such a fool as you think her to be.


10. Rather ….. than

I would rather resign than take a part in such a dishonest deal.


11. Such…. that

Such was Edward’s love for his wife that he sacrificed even his crown for her.


12. The same…. as

Women should receive the same opportunities as men.

You can get a phone at the same price as a laptop.


13. The same ….. that

This is the same man that directed us to the bus stop yesterday.

Note: We write the same ….. that when we have a complete clause beginning with that.


14. As (or so)….. as

This room is as long as it is broad.

This tunnel is not so long as it is broad.

I am not so strong now as I was in 2015.


15. As….. so

As people sow, so shall they reap.

As the seed is, so is the plant.


16. So… that

I am so tired that I cannot walk a step more.


Note Some Important Points While Using Correlative Conjunctions.

  1. As…. as is used in both Negative and Affirmative sentences and phrases.

  2. So…. as is used in negative ones.

  3. Scarcely or hardly by when and not by then.

  4. No sooner is followed by than.

  5. Neither is followed by nor, either by or.

  6. Although or though may be followed by yet but never by but or still.

  7. When not only introduces a sentence, it is immediately followed by an auxiliary verb.


Solved Solutions


Q1. Join the Following Pairs of Sentences Using the Connectors Given in Brackets.

  1. My father is ill. My mother is ill. (both……… and)

  2. The teacher was not in class. The monitor was not in the class. (neither……. nor)

  3. He is poor. He is honest. (thought…… yet)

  4. The cloth may be in the bag. It may be in the cupboard. (either…. or)

  5. There was a violent storm. Many trees were uprooted. (such…. that)

  6. The doctor reached. The patient died. (hardly….. when)

  7. He is strong. He is brave. (not only….. but also)

  8. Do not be a borrower. Do not be a lender. (neither ….. nor)

  9. It was very dark. We could see nothing. (so…… that)

  10. The thief saw the policeman. He ran away at once. (no sooner….. than)


Solutions

  1. Both my father and my mother are ill.

  2. Neither the teacher nor the monitor was in the class. 

  3. He is poor, yet he is honest.

  4. The cloth may be either in the bag or in the cupboard.

  5. There was such a violent storm that many trees were uprooted.

  6. The doctor had hardly reached when the patient died.

  7. He is not only strong but also brave.

  8. Neither be a borrower nor be a lender.

  9. It was so dark that we could see nothing.

  10. No sooner did the policeman see the thief than he ran away.


Q2. What are the Three Types of Conjunctions?

Ans. The three types of conjunctions are Coordinative, Subordinating and Correlative Conjunctions.


Q3. Correct the Following Sentences.

  1. I could neither contact Priyanka nor Dilip.

  2. Neither he plays nor studies.

  3. She both accused me and my friend Sonia.

  4. He not only built a house but also a playground.

  5. He has visited both to San Francisco and Spain.

  6. French is not only difficult to speak but also to write.

  7. She is as much noted for her beauty as for her wisdom.

  8. I have both visited Canada and Japan.

  9. He neither knows me nor my friend.

  10. Ramesh neither went to Bangalore nor Kolkata.


Solutions

  1. I could contact neither Priyanka nor Dilip.

  2. He neither plays nor studies.

  3. She accused both my friend Sonia and me.

  4. He built not only a temple but also a mosque.

  5. He has visited both San Francisco and to Spain.

  6. French is difficult not only to speak but also to write.

  7. She is noted as much for her beauty as for her wisdom.

  8. I have visited both Canada and Japan.

  9. He knows neither my friend nor me.

  10. Ramesh went neither to Bangalore nor to Delhi.