Grammar is a part of language that constructs the words into meaningful sentences. Learning grammar is a basic step of learning a second language. If you are looking to learn the distinct patterns of grammar and improve your English language skills- spoken and written then this is the place for you. We have listed crucial topics along with grammar vocabulary, students can learn about various English grammar topics and master every one of them.
If we divide the English grammar category into basic sections then we get two sections- Word level grammar which will discuss the parts of speech and sentence level grammar which will discuss the categories of sentences. This categorisation will ease your learning process, read the entire article to learn the rules of grammar and acquire standard proficiency in English language.
Last updated date: 28th Sep 2023
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English Grammar- Parts of Speech
Increase your knowledge of Englishgrammar topics and parts of speech in the English language by reading the following:
Active voice is the type of speech where the subject of the verb does the action. For example, the sentence “He drank the juice” is an active voice because the subject ‘he’ of the verb ‘drank’ is doing the main action in this sentence.
Words that are used for describing a place, person, living or non-living things etc are called adjectives. Words such as red, slow, heavy, bright, happy, two, big are the words which describe the quality, quantity, number or amount of something. These words are referred to as adjectives.
The words that describe a verb are referred to as adverbs. Words such as heavily, brightly, slowly are describing an action of the subject. These words are known as adverbs. For example, in the sentence “He is running slowly”, the word ‘slowly’ is describing the action verb ‘running’ which makes the word ‘slowly’ an adverb.
Articles are used before nouns or pronouns and are a type of adjective. There are two types of articles- definite and indefinite. The definite article is ‘the’ and the indefinite articles are ‘a’ and ‘an’.
A verb that is used with a main verb is referred to as auxiliary verb. For example, the words such as may, can, must, have, do are the verbs used before an action to complete a meaning. In the sentence, “She can run a 1000 Kilometres” the word ‘she’ is an auxiliary verb as it is supporting the main verb ‘run’.
A group of words that contain a subject and its verb is called a clause. For example, “they were busy when we arrived”, this is a clause as both the subject and its verb are present.
Conjunctions are the words that connect the words of a sentence together. These words also link the group of words in a phrase or clause. The examples of conjunctions are ‘and, ‘but’, ‘if’.
An auxiliary verb that modifies the meaning of the main verb is known as modal verb. The use of an auxiliary verb to express a possibility or probability of the main verb is referred to as a modal verb. It is called ‘modal auxiliary verb’.
Noun refers to the name of an object, concept, person or place. There are many types of nouns. A ‘concrete noun’ refers to something you can see or touch like a fruit or person. An ‘abstract noun’ is something that can only be felt or understood in concept, for example ‘happiness’ is an abstract noun. A ‘countable noun’ is something that you count for example, books, dollars and an ‘uncountable noun’ is the object that you cannot count such as water or music.
Passive voice is a type of speech where the subject receives the action of the main verb. For example, in the sentence “the fish was caught”, the subject ‘fish’ is receiving the action which is being caught. This will be referred to as passive voice.
A group of words which do not contain a subject and its verb is called a phrase. For example, “the cat on a table” and “ one orange in basket” are a group of words that do not have a subject and its verb together. This will be referred to as a phrase.
Prepositions majorly come before a noun and provide information about the time, direction and place. Prepositions are used to describe the position of a noun or an object in context to place or time. The examples are- in,at,to,under,over etc.
Words that replace nouns in sentences or paragraphs are called pronouns. The examples are I, me, you, him, he, her, she etc. The use of pronoun is showed in the following example-
Sentence 1: “Eren is fighting for freedom and Eren believes in equality.”
Sentence 2: “Eren is fighting for freedom and he believes in equality.”
In sentence 2, the word ‘he’ has replaced the noun ‘Eren’. The word ‘he’ will be referred to as a pronoun.
A word that describes an action or a state of being is known as a verb. The action words such as ‘work’, ‘eat’, ‘run’ , ‘meditate’ and ‘sleep’ are examples of verbs. In the sentence- “ A cat is eating a broccoli”, the word ‘eating’ will be considered a verb as it is describing the action taking place between the subject and object.
Grammar Topics: Sentence
A sentence is a set of words that is complete and meaningful, it contains a subject and its verb along with a message conveyed in statement, question, command or exclamation form. The sentence construction and the agreement between its parts is the most crucial step to increase proficiency in language. Learn about the types of sentences and its structure by reading the below mentioned points.
Types of Sentences
There are four types of sentences:
Declarative- the sentence that makes a statement and informs about something, for example- “Levi likes ice cream”.
Interrogative - this type of sentence asks a question, for example- “Does Anya like eating pie?”
Imperative- imperative sentence is a command, it tells to do something, for example- “shut the door”.
Exclamative- the sentence that has an expression of surprise in it, for example- “such a hilarious story!”
Types of Sentence Structure
There are four types of sentence structure:
Simple- a sentence that is an independent clause with no dependent clause or conjunction.
Compound- a sentence that has two or more independent clauses joined by a conjunction.
Complex- a sentence that contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. The clauses are joined by a subordinate conjunction such as ‘who’, ‘which’, ‘since’, ‘while’.
Compound-complex- a sentence that contains multiple independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. These sentences also have conjunctions and subordinators.
Reported speech or indirect speech tells you what someone said but does not tell the actual words said by the person. For example- “ He said that he didn’t like the jacket” and “students complained about the teacher” are sentences of reported speech.
Direct speech is the word-to-word repetition of the speaker’s or writer’s message. It is a type of sentence that informs what the other person said in the exact same way the speaker enunciated. There is no addition of words in the main dialogue. For example- he said, “I didn’t like the jacket” is a form of direct speech.
English Grammar Tenses
Tenses are the grammatical constructions of a sentence that indicates the details of occurred events. Tenses are a crucial element of sentence construction as tenses are the basis or subject-verb agreement that takes place in the sentence. The list of English grammar tenses is listed below for your knowledge.
Simple present tense
Present continuous tense
Present perfect tense
Present perfect continuous tense
Simple past tense
Past continuous tense
Past perfect tense
Past perfect continuous tense
Simple future tense
Future continuous tense
Future perfect tense
Future perfect continuous tense
Grammar can be made easy with simple explanations and plenty of practice. You can learn about the various English grammar topics and increase your grammar vocabulary by reading the discussion provided here. Vedantu makes it easier for students to learn English grammar by proper categorisation of topics and an easy to learn approach to assist students in enhancing their grammar skills.