The Constitution of India is a document containing the framework of the political system, the duties, rights, limitations, and structure of the government that this nation ought to follow. It also spells out the rights and duties of the Indian citizens. Nobody in India - not even the Prime Minister or the President - has the power to do anything that violates the constitutional rule.
Every year, on 26th January, we celebrate Republic Day. It is on this day in 1950 that the Constitution of India became effective. Although Dr. Ambedkar is known for his prominent role in drafting the constitution, it was the fruit of the hard work of 299 people.
The Indian constitution is the lengthiest constitution in the world. It has 448 articles organised into 25 parts and 12 schedules. Our country is so big with so many cultures, caste and religions, and with so many states that people who drafted the Constitution had to focus on the minutest of detail. Besides, the Constitution has been amended many times and new rules and laws have been added. As a result, the Constitution of India became the lengthiest constitution in the world.
The beautiful thing about our Constitution is it can be modified if a political party has a super majority and yet it is not easily modifiable. The Supreme Court has ruled that no provision of the Constitution can be with the aim to destroy that provision. At the same time, nobody has the right to tweak the basic structure of the Constitution. As a result, on one hand, our Constitution remains updated and on the other, no political party with evil intention can deface it to establish monopoly.
Unlike the British constitution, our Constitution is completely written with no ambiguity. It focuses on the minutest aspects of the political, executive and the legal systems of the country and it also focuses on the fundamental rights and duties of the citizens of India.
The Indian Constitution prescribes that India should have a dual governance - the Centre and the regional states. It also ruled that the country must have the three pillars of democracy - legislative system, executive system and the judiciary. Hence, the Indian Constitution supports a federal structure. However, the Constitution has also given some extra power to the Centre. The Centre has the power to preside over matters that concern both the Centre as well as the states; it has the power to announce emergency; it can modify the Constitution and the state has no power to oppose that modification. Hence, the Constitution has unitary features too.
The Constitution of India is created by the Indians. There is no foreign hand whatsoever. Due democratic process was followed in the form of debates before enforcing the Constitution. And last bust not the least, it stands to protect the fundamental rights of every Indian.
The Preamble to the constitution is the soul of it. The preamble says that India is a sovereign country - it is ruled and managed by the Indians and Indians only. It further says that India is a secular country. Unlike our neighbouring country, in India, all the citizens of the country can practice their religions without any fear. Ours is a socialist country as per the Constitution- that means that her resources are owned by the community of the people - neither by the State, nor by private corporations. Lastly, the preamble says that India is a democratic country where the citizens have the right to choose the members of the government.
Political parties come and go; what remains largely unchanged is the constitution of India. It is the holy book of the Indian Republic.
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