Class 10 Democratic Politics Chapter 2: Federalism - Revision Notes
The vertical division of power between various levels of government is one of the main forms of power-sharing in modern democracies. This Class 10 Social Science Political Science Chapter 2 Federalism focuses on that very type of power-sharing. It is usually known as federalism. The chapter starts by explaining federalism in general terms, the principles and methods of federalism in India. The discussion of federal constitutional provisions is followed by a discussion of politics and policies that have reinforced federalism in practice. Our local government, a unique and third level of Indian federalism is also discussed here.
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Access Class 10 Social Science (Political Science) Chapter 2 Federalism
Discover concise and comprehensive revision notes for Class 10 Democratic Politics Chapter 2 on federalism.
Gain a deep understanding of the key concepts and principles underlying Federalism.
Definition of Federalism:
Explore the concept of federalism, a system of government that divides power between a central authority and regional governments.
Understand how this division of power maintains a balance between a strong central government and the autonomy of regional governments.
Powers and Responsibilities:
Delve into the powers and responsibilities of the central government, such as defense, foreign affairs and currency regulation.
Explore the areas where regional governments exercise authority, such as education, public health and local infrastructure development.
Importance of a Written Constitution:
Discover the significance of a written constitution in federalism, as it defines the powers and limitations of both the central and regional governments.
Understand how a written constitution protects the rights and liberties of citizens and provides a legal framework for governance.
Advantages of Federalism:
Explore the benefits of federalism, including the participation of diverse regional interests, local self-governance and accommodation of regional needs.
Understand how federalism fosters unity and stability by preventing the concentration of power in one central authority.
Two Levels of Government Exist:
One exists at the national or the central level that is usually responsible for the entire country. They take care of few subjects that are of national interest.
Others exist at the level of state or divisional provinces and look after the administration on daily basis.
In a unitary system of government, only one level holds political power or authority. If other levels of government are present they work as subordinates or under the central government.
A federal government, in contrast, cannot order the state or the local government to follow the guidelines generated by the central government.
Key Features of Federalism Are:
Learn about the division of power, where specific responsibilities and authorities are allocated to the central government and regional governments.
Understand the concept of dual government, where both the central and regional governments coexist and have their own distinct areas of jurisdiction.
What Makes India a Federal Country?
The Constitution provided for a two-tier system of government: the Union Government or Central Government and the State governments. Later Panchayats and Municipalities were also added.
Since there is a three-tier of government, the Constitution states three lists:
Subjects like defense, foreign affairs, currency, etc. are included in the list.
These subjects are of national importance.
Laws related to this list are made by the Union List.
Subjects like police, commerce, irrigation, etc. are covered under this list.
These subjects are of State and local importance.
Laws related to this subject are made by the state government.
Contains subjects of common interest to both the Union as well as the States such as education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption, and succession.
Both the Central and the state governments can make laws in the Concurrent List.
Some States enjoy a special status such as Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, and Mizoram under Article 371 due to their peculiar social and historical circumstances.
Chandigarh, Lakshadweep, the capital city of Delhi, is called Union Territories and the Central Government has special powers in running these areas.
How is Federalism Practiced?
The creation of linguistic States was a significant step for democratic politics in our country.
In 1947, the boundaries of several old States of India were changed to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same State. Some states like Nagaland, Uttarakhand, and Jharkhand were created to recognize differences based on culture, ethnicity, or geography.
It helped to make the country more united and the administration was easier.
Hindi was identified as the official language but no language was given the status of the national language. Besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognized as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution.
Restructuring the relationship between the Center and the State is yet another way in which federalism was strengthened in practice. If no single party has a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, major national parties could join forces with other parties, along with several regional parties, to form a coalition in the Centre.
Decentralization in India
The process in which the power is taken from the Central and State government and distributed in the hands of local governments is called decentralization.
This idea was brought into account as there are many problems and issues that are better resolved and taken care of at the local level than state or central level. Hence several local institutes were set up to take care of them.
This initiative was taken by the Indian government in 1992 and the Constitution was amended to create a third-tier of government. This made Indian democracy more powerful and effective.
To bring this to power effectively, the following steps were taken:
Regular elections for these local bodies were made mandatory.
Seats were reserved for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward classes to ensure their representation.
Women had one-third of the seats reserved for them.
State Election Commission was also established to conduct these elections.
Some share of power and revenue that the state government had was given to these local bodies.
Panchayati raj is the local government that is present in each village. A gram panchayat is also present in some groups of villages in some states.
Big cities and urban areas are taken care of by the municipalities.
Important Questions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 2
1. State the dual objective of a federal system.
Ans: The federal system thus has dual objectives: to safeguard and promote the unity of the country, and accommodate regional diversity. These aspects are crucial for the institutions and practice of federalism. Governments at different levels should agree to some rules of power-sharing and trust that each would abide by its part of the agreement.
2. What are the factors that make the Indian federal government so attractive?
Ans: The following are the factors:
The powers are distributed and mobilized among center, state, and local governments.
The effective legal system and organized steps to make decisions make the process transparent and more trustworthy.
3. What steps were taken to make India into a federation?
Ans: The following were the steps:
Linguistic States: In 1947, the boundaries of several old States of India were changed to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same State. Some states like Nagaland, Uttarakhand, and Jharkhand were created to recognize differences based on culture, ethnicity, or geography. It helped to make the country more united and the administration was easier.
Decentralization in India: The process in which the power is taken from the Central and State government and distributed in the hands of local governments is called decentralization. This idea was brought into account as there are many problems and issues that are better resolved and taken care of at the local level than state or central level. Hence several local institutes were set up to take care of them. This initiative was taken by the Indian government in 1992 and the Constitution was amended to create a third-tier of government. This made Indian democracy more powerful and effective.
4. What is Union List?
Ans: Subjects like defense, foreign affairs, currency, etc. are included in the list. These subjects are of national importance. Laws related to this list are made by the Union List.
5. What is the State List?
Ans: Subjects like police, commerce, irrigation, etc. are covered under this list. These subjects are of State and local importance. Laws related to this subject are made by the state government.
6. What is a concurrent list?
Ans: Contains subjects of common interest to both the Union as well as the States such as education, forest, trade unions, marriage, adoption, and succession. Both the Central and the state governments can make laws in the Concurrent List.
7. What level of government can legislate on the residuary subjects?
Ans: India has a federal government and hence has its power divided between the state, central and local governments. The Union government has the power to legislate on the residuary subjects.
Difference between Unitary System and Federal System
The difference between the unitary system and the federal system has been mentioned in the table below:
The Unitary System of government follows only one level of government and the Central Government is the head of the sub-units.
This type of system follows two or more levels of government.
The Central Government has the power to run the state government system and the legislation.
In the Federal System, the Central Government does not have the power to pass any order to the State Government.
In this system of government, the Central Government is the supreme body that is also in control of the administrative system and can also provide delegatory support whenever required.
In the Federal System, the State Government is not in control of the Central Government and has its own power.
Did You Know?
The 2011 census recorded more than 1,300 distinct languages which people claimed as their mother tongues.
Hindi, is the mother tongue of only about 44 percent of Indians and is the most widespread language in India.
Although the constitution did not use the word federation, the Indian Union is founded on the principles of federalism.
We hope that these notes helped you in getting a clear understanding of Federalism and how it is different from the Unitary system of government. These revision notes serve to be very useful during the last-minute exam preparation as it includes all the necessary points and concepts that are required for the examination. Students can downloadCBSE Class 10 Political Science Revision Notes for all the other chapters that are available on our website. Download free PDFs ofCBSE Class 10 Revision Notes and kickstart your exam preparation smartly.
CBSE Class 10 Political Science Other Chapter Notes
Access comprehensive revision notes for Class 10 Democratic Politics Chapter 2 on federalism, providing a thorough understanding of the concept, division of powers, and advantages of federalism. Enhance your exam preparation and grasp the key concepts effortlessly with these concise and Vedantu’s revision notes.
FAQs on Federalism Class 10 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 2 (Free PDF Download)
1. Describe India as a Federal Nation.
India is a federal state. But the word "federation" is never mentioned in the constitution once. Instead, what is mentioned is that India is a "Union of States." Many experts also believe India is a quasi-federal country. It means that it is a federal state with certain characteristics of a unitary government.
The constitution of India has effectively established a federal state of government. We have various levels of government, the government in the center, which is the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. Then there are the various state governments, the Vidhan Sabhas and the Vidhan Parishad. And finally, there are the Municipal Corporations and the Panchayats, which are forms of local governance.
2. How are Federations Formed?
Two factors are essential for the institutions that practice federalism: mutual trust between various levels of government and a consensus to live together. There are two ways primarily through which federations have been formed.
The first way involves independent states grouping together on their own to form a larger unit. This kind of "coming together" federation is established in the USA, Switzerland, and Australia.
The second way is that a large country chooses to divide its powers between the constituent national government and the states. This kind of 'holding together' federations is implemented in the countries of India, Spain, and Belgium.
3. What is Federalism in Class 10 Chapter 2 notes?
Federalism is a form of governance in which two levels of government control the same area. Both the central government and the lesser political subdivisions have the authority to create laws, and they have some autonomy from one another. Federalism explains why each state has its own constitution and rights, such as the ability to determine the type of votes used in national elections. The United States of America is the most prominent example of a country having a Federalist political system. To know more about Federalism, refer to the notes by visiting the link NCERT notes for Class 10 Social Science.
4. What are the key features of federalism in Class 10 Chapter 2?
The key features of federalism are -
Two or more tiers of government: Federalism is a kind of governance in which power is shared between a central authority and its constituent entities.
Separate jurisdiction: Different levels of government control the same people, yet each has its own jurisdiction.
The supreme authority of the courts: Courts have the ability to interpret the Constitution and the functions of various levels of government. The Supreme Court serves as a referee between different levels of government.
5. What makes India a federal country study rank?
The Constitution initially called for a two-tiered form of governance, with the Central Government representing the Union of India and the State Governments representing the states. Panchayats and Municipalities were later introduced as the third layer of federalism. All the significant characteristics of a federal government and their proper implementation make India a federal country. The hierarchy of the governments and the courts’ roles in maintaining law and solving disputes among these levels also play a crucial role. Download the Vedantu app and learn more about the federal country.
6. How can I download the PDF version of Solutions of Class 10 Political Science Chapter 2?
If you wish to avail of the Notes of NCERT Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 2, then -
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7. Do I need to practice all the questions of Class 10 Social Studies Chapter 2?
Yes, it is essential to practice and answer all questions since they span a wide variety of events and concepts and will provide you with a strong knowledge of the kind of questions that may be asked in those areas from an examination point of view. These questions will also help you learn how different questions on the same topic may be set and will familiarise you with the paper. You must be well-versed in all the definitions and events.