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HC Verma Solutions Class 12 Chapter 37 - Magnetic Properties of Matter

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Summary of HC Verma Solutions Part 2 Chapter 37: Magnetic Properties of Magnet

This chapter covers various magnetic properties. Concepts such as magnetization of materials and intensity of magnetization are discussed in detail. Furthermore, different kinds of magnetic materials such as ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism are also covered. Lastly, Curie's Law, Dia-, Para-, and Ferromagnetic Substances, Hysteresis, Soft Iron, and Steel are discussed.

You can access the HC Verma Solutions for Chapter 37 - Magnetic Properties of Magnet in PDF format for free. This means that you have the flexibility to study anytime and from anywhere, ensuring that you have the necessary materials at your fingertips.

The Class 12 HC Verma Solutions Magnetic Properties of Magnet PDF provided by Vedantu is designed to support your learning journey. It is created by expert Physics teachers who possess a deep understanding of the concepts covered in the chapter. By offering solutions for all the exercises in the chapter, you have the opportunity to practice problem-solving in various contexts.

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Benefits of using Vedantu’s Class 12 HC Verma Solutions for Chapter 37 - Magnetic Properties of Magnet

  • Solutions provided by expert Physics teachers with a deep understanding of the concepts.

  • Covers all exercises in the chapter for comprehensive practice.

  • Available in a free PDF format for easy accessibility anytime, anywhere.

  • Clear and concise explanations of the solutions to the exercises.

About HC Verma Class 12 Solutions For Chapter 37 - Magnetic Properties of Matter

Magnetic forces mediate a subset of a physical phenomenon known as magnetism. The magnetism of matter is the force exerted by magnets when they attract or repulse each other. Magnetic moments and the electric currents of basic particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other magnetic and currents moments. The magnetic state of a material based on pressure, temperature, and the applied magnetic field. As these variables shift, a substance can exhibit several forms of magnetism. Magnetic properties of matter can be found in various Earth materials that act as insulators and conductors of varying degrees and shapes.

Michael Faraday is the first statistician who was discovered classifying substances according to their magnetic properties in the 19th century. The strength of a magnetic field always decreases with distance, though the required mathematical relationship between strength and distance varies.

Magnetic dipoles have been recognized, although some theories predict the existence of magnetic monopoles.

Four Basic Facts About How Magnets Behave:

  • A magnet has two endpoints called poles, one is called a north pole or also called a north-seeking pole, and the other is called a south pole or also called a south-seeking pole.

  • The north pole of the first magnet attracts the south pole of a second magnet, while the north pole of the first magnet repels the second magnet's pole.

  • A magnet creates a magnetic field and is an intangible sphere of magnetism all over it.

  • The north pole of a magnet is roughly towards the Earth's north pole and vice-versa. That's because the Earth itself involves magnetic materials and behaves like a gigantic magnet.

Source of Magnetism

Magnetism is Derived from Two Sources:

  • Electric current.

  • Spin magnetic moments of elementary particles.

The magnetic properties of matter are mainly due to the magnetic moments of their atoms orbiting electrons. The magnetic moments of the nuclei of atoms are very small than the “electrons' magnetic moments, so they are negligible in the condition of the magnetization of materials.

In addition, even when the electron configuration is such that there are unpaired electrons and also non-filled subshells, it occurs frequently. In that case, the various electrons in the solid state will give the magnetic moments of that point in different, random directions so that the material will not be magnetic. Hence, the magnetic behavior of a material is based on its structure, particularly its electron configuration, and also on the temperature. Depending on whether there is an attraction or repulsion between the north pole and south pole of a magnet, the matter is classified as being either paramagnetic or diamagnetic, respectively.

Magnetic Properties of Matter

There are several magnetism properties of matters including Magnetization, Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism respectively.


In this section, we will learn about magnetization and the concept of magnetic intensity.

In electromagnetism, magnetization, also called magnetic polarization, is a vector field that contributes to the measure of the density of induced or permanent magnetic dipole moments in a given magnetic material. Magnetization is the magnetism of matter which was discovered by William Gilbert. The variation within this branch is described by direction and is either Axial or Diametric. As we know, magnetization results from magnetism, which results from the motion of electrons in the atoms or the spin of electrons in the atom or the nuclei.

The theory of magnetization helps us in classifying the materials based on their magnetic properties. Net magnetization is the result of the response material to an external magnetic field. The magnetization of a sample material M is called the net magnetic moment for that material per unit volume. The mathematical formula of magnetization field or M-field is,

M = mnetV

In a magnetic field, paramagnetic materials have a weak induced magnetism, which disappears when the magnetic field is eliminated and Ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials have strong magnetization. That can be magnetized to retain its magnetism in the absence of an external field, resulting in the creation of a permanent magnet.


Michael Faraday discovered diamagnetism in September 1845. This is the weak form of magnetism that is arranged in the presence of an external magnetic field. This generates a magnetic moment that is very small and in a direction opposite to that of the applied field. Diamagnetic is a magnetism of matter in which materials are opposed by a magnetic field, an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them that is usually in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force. In addition, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials are attracted by a magnetic field.

When placed inside the strong diamagnetic and electromagnetic materials are attracted toward regions where the magnetic field is weak.  In ferromagnetic and paramagnetic material, the weak diamagnetic force is controlled by the attractive force of magnetic dipoles in the material.

Diamagnetism was first discovered by Michael Faraday in the year of 1845. In addition, when Anton Brugmans observed in 1778 that bismuth was opposed by magnetic fields. A simple rule of thumb is used in chemistry to determine whether a particle or atom or iron is paramagnetic or diamagnetic. In diamagnetic material, all electrons in the atom are paired, and the substance made from this atom. A paramagnetic material has an unpaired electron.


Paramagnetism has an unpaired electron in the material, so most atoms are incompletely filled with atomic orbitals. Hence this atom is called paramagnetism. Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby several materials are weakly attracted by a strong magnetic field. In addition, paramagnetism creates a magnetic field in the direction of the applied magnetic field. Paramagnetism was discovered by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1845. The materials that are arranged in paramagnetism are called paramagnetic. Therefore, true paramagnets are arranged in magnetic susceptibility conforming to the Curie-Weiss laws and exhibit paramagnetism over a wide temperature range.

This type of magnetization depends on Curie’s law. According to Curie’s law, paramagnetic materials, magnetic susceptibility χ are inversely proportional to their temperature. It is represented as;

M = χH = C/T x H


M = magnetization,

χ = magnetic susceptibility,

C = material-specific Curie constant,

T = absolute (Kelvin) temperature,

H = auxiliary magnetic field.

Here are some examples of paramagnetic materials, aluminum, oxygen, titanium, and iron oxide (FeO). In addition, a simple rule of thumb is used in chemistry to determine whether a particle or atom or molecule is paramagnetic or diamagnetic. This rule depends on the paired or unpaired electron.

HC Verma Volume 2 Solutions Other Chapters:

To make the most of the HC Verma Chapter 37 - Magnetic Properties of Magnet Solutions, Vedantu suggests the following tips:

Begin by thoroughly reading the chapter: It is important to have a solid understanding of the fundamental concepts and terminology before delving into the solutions.

Approach the examples step-by-step: Instead of simply memorizing the solutions, focus on understanding the logic and reasoning behind each step. This will enhance your comprehension and enable you to tackle similar problems.

Attempt the illustrative exercises independently: Challenge yourself to solve the exercises on your own before referring to the solutions. In case you encounter difficulties, the solutions can provide guidance, but attempting the problems independently first will improve your problem-solving skills.

Practice diligently: Engage in regular and consistent practice to enhance your proficiency in solving physics problems. The more you practice, the more proficient you will become.

In summary, Vedantu's Class 12 HC Verma Solutions for Chapter 37 - Magnetic Properties of Magnet offer expertly crafted solutions provided in a convenient and accessible PDF format. Utilizing these solutions, along with the suggested study tips, will empower you to excel in your physics studies.

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FAQs on HC Verma Solutions Class 12 Chapter 37 - Magnetic Properties of Matter

1. Is Magnetism a Force?

Magnetism is one angle of the combined electromagnetic force. The physical phenomena begin from the force caused by magnets, objects that can produce fields that repel or attract another object. A magnetic field applying force on particles in the magnetic field is due to the Lorentz force. The force reacts on an electrically charged particle in a magnetic field. It depends on the magnitude of the charge and the velocity of the particle, and the strength of the magnetic field.

2. Why is Magnetism a Physical Property? 

Magnetism is a physical property due to the following reasons: 

Magnetism is a physical property because if any object attracts a magnet then it does not change the substance it (changes the composition) itself and doesn't involve chemical reactions. Here are some examples of physical properties: smell, boiling point,  color, melting point, freezing point, infra-red spectrum, attraction (paramagnetic) or repulsion (diamagnetic) to magnets. Therefore, that is why it is often described as a physical property and not a chemical property. To know more about it, you can click here.

3. How many materials are magnetic materials classified into?

Based on how materials behave in a magnetic field, magnetic materials are divided into three types. Diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic materials are the three categories.

When diamagnetic materials are exposed to an external magnetic field, they become negatively magnetized. As a result, diamagnetic compounds resist magnets. In the direction of the applied field, paramagnetic substances gain a modest net magnetic moment. As a result, the magnetic field attracts them slightly.

The magnetic field attracts ferromagnetic materials significantly. Even after the magnetic field is removed, these materials retain their magnetism. Hysteresis is the phenomenon of a ferromagnetic substance's magnetization lagging behind the magnetic field.

4. What are the five magnetic properties of materials?

The five magnetic properties of materials are: (i) Intensity of magnetisation (ii) Magnetic Field (H) or Magnetic intensity (iii)  Magnetic susceptibility (iv) Retentivity (v) Coercivity

  • Intensity of Magnetisation: The magnetic moment of the electrons moving around the nucleus. The magnetic dipole moment sums to zero when the material is not magnetized. The magnetic moments are aligned in a specific direction when the material is kept in an external magnetic field, and the substance acquires a net non-zero dipole moment. Magnetization, or the intensity of magnetization, is defined as the net dipole moment per unit volume.

  • Magnetic Field or Magnetic Intensity: The magnetic intensity refers to the magnetic field produced only by an electric current running through a solenoid. The magnetic property of a material is induced by the external magnetic field.

  • Magnetic Susceptibility: A material becomes magnetized when it is exposed to an external magnetic field. The intensity of magnetisation (I) acquired by the material is linearly proportional to the magnetic field for a modest magnetizing field (H).
    I ∝ H
    I = χmH , χm is the susceptibility of the material.

  • Retentivity: Retentivity refers to a material's ability to retain or resist magnetization.

  • Coercivity: The ability of a material to endure an external magnetic field without getting demagnetized is referred to as coercivity.

5. How to prepare for Magnetic Properties of Matter?

To prepare for the lesson - magnetic properties of matter, it is important to prepare to be thorough with the topics which lay for the foundation of the subject. It is extremely important for the base to be strong, so that you can build on it. Students should also be well versed with concepts like magnetic properties and classification of magnetic materials. Students should also learn by practicing sample papers on this lesson. To get free study materials, you can check the Vedantu App and Website.