After the Republic of China, India is the most populous country in the world. Presently, India is the second-largest populated country in the world that occupies 2.4% of the world’s land area and represents 17.5% of the world’s population. This means that one out of six people on this planet is an Indian. It is estimated by the United Nations that India with 1.3 billion inhabitants would surpass China’s population of 1.4 billion by 2024 to become the world’s most populous country. Population Explosion is considered as a threat and burden on the Earth.
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Population Explosion refers to the rapid increase in the number of people in an area. It is a situation where the economy of the country cannot cope up with the rapid growth of the population. Evidently, the largest contributing countries to population explosion are the poorer nations and are termed as developing countries. In India, the state of Uttar Pradesh is the most populated state and Lakshadweep is the least populated.
Population Explosion has become the mother of evils in our country because too much population is trapping people in a web of poverty and illiteracy that further escalates the problem. Any time of the day, whether it is a metro station, airport, railway platforms, road, highway bus stop, shopping mall, market, or even a social or religious gathering, there is always a swelling crowd of people, in India.
The major cause of this population explosion is the difference between the birth rate and the death rate. Earlier, there was a balance between the birth and death rate due to limited medical facilities, people dying in wars, and other calamities. According to the 2011 census, the birth rate has actually come down but then the death rate has also declined due to the medical advancements.
Illiteracy is another cause of an increase in population. Low literacy rate leads to traditional, superstitious, and ignorant people. For example, Kerala has a very high literacy rate and it constitutes only 2.76% of India’s population as compared to Uttar Pradesh having maximum illiteracy rate and forms 16.49% of the population. Educated people are well aware of birth control methods.
Family planning, welfare programs, and policies have not fetched the desired result. The increase in population is putting tremendous pressure on the limited infrastructure and negating India’s progress.
The superstitious people mainly from rural places think that having a male child would give them prosperity and so there is a considerable pressure on the parents to produce children till a male child is born. This leads to a population explosion.
Poverty is another main reason for this. Poor people believe that the more the number of people in the family, the more will be the number of persons to earn bread. Hence it contributes to the increase in population.
Continuous illegal migration of people from neighbouring countries like Nepal, Bangladesh is leading to a rise in the population density in India.
Religion sentiment is another cause of the population explosion. Some orthodox communities believe that any mandate or statutory method of prohibition is sacrilegious. It is difficult for India to exercise a check on the religious grounds for its secularism.
The growth of the population has a major impact on the living standards of people. That is why, despite our incredible progress in the agricultural and industrial spheres, our capita income has not risen appreciably.
The rapidly growing population in India has led to the problem of food scarcity and heavy pressure on land. Even though 60% of its population is engaged in agriculture, yet people do not get even the barely necessary amount of food.
Generating employment opportunities for such a huge population in India is very difficult. Therefore, illiteracy is growing rapidly every year.
Development of infrastructural facilities is not able to cope up with the pace of growing population. So facilities like transportation, communication, housing, education, and healthcare are becoming inadequate to provide provision to the people.
The increasing population leads to unequal distribution of income and inequalities among the people widened.
Unmanageable population size may lead to the failure of the government to provide the basic facilities to the people.
Economic development is slow in a country where population is growing at a very fast rate. This also leads to low capital formation.
Ignorance, illiteracy, unhygienic living conditions, and lack of recreation have always been the cause of population problems in India.
Rapid growth in population is also an indication of the wastage of natural resources.
To tackle this problem, the government needs to take corrective measures. The entire development of the country depends on how effectively the population explosion is stemmed.
The government and various NGOs should raise awareness about family planning and welfare. Hoardings with slogans like “Hum do, humare do” and “Chota Parivar, Sukhi Parivar” should be put up in hospitals and other public places. These slogans mean that a small family is a happy family and two children for two parents. The awareness about the use of contraceptive pills and family planning methods should be generated.
The health care centers should help the poor people with the free distribution of contraceptives and encourage the control of the number of children.
The government should come forward to empower women and improve the status of women and girls. People in rural places should be educated and modern amenities should be provided for recreation.
India’s strength in the global world in various fields cannot be ignored. By raising public awareness and enlisting strict population control norms, India will be able to tackle this issue.
Q1. What do You Mean by Population Explosion?
Ans. Population Explosion refers to the rapid increase in the number of people in an area.
Q2. What are the Factors for Population Explosion?
Ans. The factors for population explosion are illiteracy, poverty, lack of basic amenities, religion sentiments and superstitions.
Q3. What Measures should India Take to Control the Growth of Population?
Ans. The Indian government must raise awareness about family planning and welfare. The women and girls should be empowered. Health care centers should distribute free contraceptives and educate people. Sex education must be mandatory in schools and colleges.