Population Growth Essay

Bookmark added to your notes.
View Notes

Essay on Population Growth

One of the major problems the world is facing is the problem of the exponential growth of population. This problem is the greatest one. Most countries in the world are showing a steep rise in the population figures. World’s resources are limited and so they cannot support a population beyond a certain limit. There has been news about the scarcity of food grains and the paucity of jobs mounting across the world. The number of human beings is multiplying at a steady rate. The world population has already crossed the six billion mark and it is expected to double in the next three or four decades. 

If the population continues to grow at this rate then the economy of the overpopulated countries will be unable to cope up with the growth of population. Every attempt to bring peace, comfort and welfare to everybody’s door will be thwarted and misery will become prominent if the population is not kept within proper limits. Except for a few countries, all countries are facing a population boom. Currently, the largest populated country in the world is China and India is the second-largest populated country. India represents 17% of the world’s population. Other countries like Bangladesh, Japan, Indonesia and some countries of Europe are threatened to be burst into the seams by population explosion.


Causes of Population Growth

The major cause of population growth is the decrease in death rate and rise in the life span of the average individual. Earlier, there was a balance between the birth and death rate due to limited medical facilities, people dying in wars, and other calamities. The rapid spread of education has made people health conscious. People have become aware of the basic causes of diseases and simple remedies for them.

Illiteracy is another cause of an increase in population. Low literacy rate leads to traditional, superstitious, and ignorant people. Educated people are well aware of birth control methods. 

Family planning, welfare programs, and policies have not fetched the desired result. The increase in population is putting tremendous pressure on the limited infrastructure and negating progress of any country.

The superstitious people mainly from rural places think that having a male child would give them prosperity and so there is a considerable pressure on the parents to produce children till a male child is born. This leads to population growth in underdeveloped countries like India, Bangladesh. 

Poverty is another main reason for this. Poor people believe that the more the number of people in the family, the more will be the number of persons to earn bread. Hence it contributes to the increase in population. 

Continuous illegal migration of people from neighbouring countries leads to a rise in the population density in the countries. 

Religion sentiment is another cause of the population explosion. Some orthodox communities believe that any mandate or statutory method of prohibition is sacrilegious. 

Impact Due to Population 

The growth of the population has a major impact on the living standards of people. Overpopulation across the world may create more demand for freshwater supply and this has become a major issue because Earth has only 3% of freshwater. 

The natural resources of Earth are getting depleted because of the exponential growth of population. These resources cannot be replenished so easily. If there is no check on the growth of population then there will be a day in the next few years when these natural resources will run out completely. 

There is a huge impact on the climatic conditions because of the growth of population. Human activities are responsible for changing global temperature. 

Some Major Effects of the High Population are as Follows

The rapid growth of population has caused major effects on our planet. 

  1. The rapidly growing population in the world has led to the problem of food scarcity and heavy pressure on land resources. 

  2. Generating employment opportunities in vastly populated countries is very difficult. 

  3. Development of infrastructural facilities is not able to cope up with the pace of a growing population. So facilities like transportation, communication, housing, education, and healthcare are becoming inadequate to provide provision to the people. 

  4. The increasing population leads to unequal distribution of income and inequalities among the people widened.

  5. There will be a large proportion of unproductive consumers due to overpopulation. 

  6. Economic development is bound to be slower in developing countries in which the population is growing at a very fast rate. This also leads to low capital formation. Overpopulation makes it difficult to implement policies. 

  7. When there is rapid growth in a country then the government of that country is required to provide the minimum facilities for the people for their comfortable living. Hence, it has to increase housing, educational, public health, communication and other facilities that will increase the cost of the social overheads.

  8. Rapid population growth is also an indication of the wastage of natural resources. 

Preventive Measures

To tackle this problem, the government of developing countries needs to take corrective measures. The entire development of the country depends on how effectively the population explosion is stemmed. 

The government and various NGOs should raise awareness about family planning and welfare. The awareness about the use of contraceptive pills and family planning methods should be generated. 

The health care centres in developing and under-developed countries should help the poor people with the free distribution of contraceptives and encourage the control of the number of children. 

The government of developing countries should come forward to empower women and improve the status of women and girls. People in rural places should be educated and modern amenities should be provided for recreation. 

Education plays a major role in controlling the population. People from developing countries should be educated so that they understand the implications of overpopulation.


Overpopulation may lead to many issues like depletion of natural resources, environmental pollution and degradation and loss of surroundings.  All countries must take immediate steps to control and manage human population growth. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What Do You Mean By Population Growth and How is it a Threat to the World?

Ans. Population growth refers to the rapid increase in the number of people in an area. It is a threat to the world because the world’s resources are limited and it cannot support a population beyond a certain limit.

Q2. What are the Factors for the Exponential Growth of Population?

Ans. The factors for the exponential growth of population are illegal migration from other countries, illiteracy, lack of awareness of contraceptive methods, poverty, lack of basic amenities, religious sentiments and superstitions. 

Q3. What Measures Should India Take to Control the Growth of Population?

Ans. The Indian government must raise awareness about family planning and welfare. The women and girls should be empowered. Health care centres should distribute free contraceptives and educate people. Sex education must be mandatory in schools and colleges. 

Q4. How is Overpopulation Affecting Our Planet?

Ans. The natural resources of Earth are getting depleted because of the exponential growth of population. Overpopulation is impacting massively on the climatic conditions. Human activities are responsible for changing global temperature.