Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 7 - PDF Download
Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 describes what marginalisation is and how it is tackled in India as per the Constitution. The role of the democratic government of India is to identify the marginalised castes and religious sects to give them opportunities similar to what the common citizens of India are entitled to. The constitutional rights will be dictated and amended for those marginalised groups as well. It is a long process that has several steps. To understand the entire concept of this chapter, you can refer to the simplified Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Notes.
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Understanding the Meaning of Socially Marginalized:
The meaning of marginalized is to occupy the sides, not the center of things. For example, if you are playing cricket, you get marginalized by only being a team player, not a captain.
Various Reasons for Marginalization Are:
People follow different languages, different customs, belong to various religious groups, belong to different majority communities, poor people are called low-status people and less human from others, pointing to their inability to access their rights, making them feel a sense of powerlessness.
The sense of exclusion and difference with the marginalized groups leads the groups not to use the opportunities and resources and abolish their rights. They feel powerless and disadvantaged from high society. Certain groups of society feel marginalized socially, culturally, economically.
Adivasi are the communities or original inhabitants or tribes who have lived and w3ill continue to live close to the forest.
In India, around 8% of the population is tribal people or Adivasis.
The most vital mining, small-scale sectors, and industrial centers are situated within the Adivasi areas like Rourkela, Bokaro, Bhilai, Jamshedpur, and a lot more.
There are over 500 Adivasi groups in India particularly in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Odisha, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and north-eastern States- Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Nagaland, Mizoram.
In Odisha, you can find 60 different tribal groups who are grouped into scheduled Tribes and scheduled caste people and follow different hierarchical systems. They have believed in the principle of caste or Jati Varna since the king's ruling times.
Adivasis follow different tribal religions that involve praying to ancestors, spirits, mountain spirits, animal spirits, village spirits, etc. They do not follow religions such as Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, etc., but they influence us from the times of empires.
Many Adivasis followed worship in Lord Jagannath, Shakti, and Tantrik traditions from Orissa, Bengal, and Assam respectively but within the 19 century many Adivasis converted themselves to Christianity which became an important religion for them.
Adivasi speaks a different language which is different from the mainstream state languages. Above 70% of Adivasis speak the Santali language, and one can find many magazines and publications on the internet relating to this language.
Adivasis and Their Stereotypes:
Adivasi is shown in various stereotypical ways through dance, colorful costumes, headwear, lifestyle, and many more. This made them backward or exotic, but they are improving and changing themselves with the coming of new times and are trying to adopt new ideas.
Adivasis and Development
History of Adivasis:
Till 19-century forests covered a major part of the country and Adivasi had control and deep knowledge about it. They often help empires in accessing forest resources.
During the pre-colonial period, they were hunters who were also depending on shifting agriculture, cultivating, and leading a Nomadic life. Adivasi were forced to change their economic status, forest, and political policies by the public and private sectors. So they switched their jobs as workers in construction sites industries and domestic workers which forced them to leave the forest and its access.
After 1830, Adivasis moved to the States and some left the country and moved to countries like - Australia, Mauritius, and the Caribbean. In Assam, 70 lakhs Adivasi successfully launched a tea factory and have become famous for it.
Adivasis Stepping towards Development:
Slowly, forests were cleared for making industries and agriculture.
Adivasis were sheltered at places rich in natural resources, mining areas, minerals, and other industrial projects.
According to sources, over 50% of Adivasis were displaced due to the launching of mining projects. 79% of people vacate their lands and we're from Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Andhra Pradesh for building up a large number of dams in independent India.
The lands in northeast India were militarized to make 104 national parks over 40501 km2 of land and 543 wildlife sanctuaries, which cover 118918 km2 of land, were originally inhabited by tribal people. As the tribe got evicted from the forest, they did not get access to food and shelter, so they shifted to two cities searching for work and got employed in the local industries and construction sites.
Adivasi faced hardship and poverty where 45% of Adivasis live in rural areas and 35% in urban areas below the poverty line and facing problems such as unemployment, low literacy rate, malnourished children, loss of traditions and customs, and more.
Marginalization and Minorities:
The small communities concerning the rates of the population are referred to as MINORITIES.
The Indian constitution had permitted the majority of people in the society and government to express themselves, so the size of the community can be a disadvantage and may lead to marginalization. This was why safeguarding the minority community was necessary so that they would not get dominated by the majority. It protected them against discrimination and disadvantage that they could have faced.
The constitution provided safeguards to protect India's cultural diversity, promoting equality, justice, secured life, assets, and wellness of people while maintaining balanced relations between majority and minority communities.
Marginalization and Muslims:
In India, 14.2% of the population are mostly Muslims and considered as a marginalized community because www.vedantu.com they do not benefit from their socio-economic development.
In 2005 Justice Rajendra Sachar examined the Muslim community's social educational and economic status and suggested that they be a part of marginalized communities like SCs and STs.
Important Questions and Answers
1. What do you mean by marginalization?
Ans: Marginalization is defined as a social process to get confined to a lower status. It happens when people get rejected for fundamental rights due to their low social and economic status. A situation where a social group is forced to leave in confinement from the mainstream. This section does not get the proper opportunity for their social-economic development.
2. What do you mean by the minority?
Ans: A minority are the communities that are small from the rest of the population. A particular section of people who have a lower population than the other communities is known as minorities. For example, in India, there are more Christians, Hindus, and Sikhs in comparison to Muslims. So Muslims are stated as the minority community. India's constitution gives Muslims the safeguard to get fundamental rights and make sure that they do not face any discrimination or disadvantage.
3. Why do Muslims belong to the marginalized community? Use the data provided in the chapter and give two reasons.
Ans: As per the data provided in this chapter, the literacy rates of Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Christians, and Jain's are 65% 70% 73% 80%, and 94% respectively whereas the literacy rate of Muslims is only 59 %.
Only three percent of Muslims represent IAS services. So from the above status, it is proved that Muslims are a marginalized community of India.
4. Give three reasons why groups are marginalized?
Ans: The reasons behind the marginalization of the groups are:
Groups are marginalized because they belong to two different religions, speak a different language, follow different customs, etc.
They are poor, considering themselves as low-class people and viewing them as less human than other majorities.
The government provides many schemes to influence these people and gain profit from them.
5. Why did the Adivasi leave their forest land?
Ans: Adivasi had control and deep knowledge about it. They often help empires in accessing forest resources. During the pre-colonial period, they hunted, depending on shifting agriculture, cultivation, and leading a Nomadic life. Adivasi are forced to leave their forest land due to modernization and different other reasons such as:
Timber from the forest was taken for the construction of railways and houses.
Forest land was taken for mining and agricultural purposes by non-tribals
Forest land was reserved for making wildlife sanctuaries and national parks by the government.
6. During the time of empires where did the tribal people live?
Ans: During the time of empires and in the colonial period the tribal people or Adivasis lived in the forest where they were dependent upon food, water, and shelter. Metal ores like copper, iron, gold, silver, diamonds, Timber, animal products (wax, honey, lac). They used 8000 plant species to make medicines; 425 species for making gums, dyes, resins; 325 spacers for pesticides; 550 for making fibers and 3500 spaces for making edible items.
7. Why are Adivasis marginalized?
Ans: Adivasi are being marginalized because
The tribal people were forced to migrate to cities searching for employment and livelihood as the government started the construction of different projects and factories.
Adivasi is unable to access the forest as the government changed the forest laws.
8. What do you mean by the terms ghettoization, hierarchy, malnourished, and militarised?
Ans: Ghettoization: A ghetto is a locality or area which is highly populated by a particular community. The process that shows such a situation is known as ghettoization. This happens due to different socio-cultural and economic reasons.
Hierarchy: Hierarchy is an arrangement of a person or grading system that uses less power. Malnourished: It is otherwise known as undernourished. The children who do not get adequate food due to their parents' family conditions are known as malnourished or undernourished children.
Militarized: The area guided by the country's armed forces is known as militarized areas. For example, Indo Pakistan border, Indo China border, Indo Tibetan border.
9. Write down three points that tell about the life of Adivasis or tribal people in India?
Ans: The three points that tell about the life of Adivasis or tribal people in India in this context are:
Adivasi was forced to move from the forest and work in construction, domestic workers, plantations, and industries.
Tribal people were considered tropical, backward, and ancient people.
They have been portrayed in stereotypical ways through their way of living, dance, and costumes.
10. Do you think that economic and social marginalization is interlinked?
Ans: Yes, the economic and social marginalizations are interlinked in the following ways:
Marginalization is a difficult theory that needs several measures, strategies, and safeguards to cope with the situation. People need to protect their rights, laws, and policies defined by the constitution without which we will not be able to protect the country's equality, diversity, and uniqueness.