Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 describes what marginalisation is and how it is tackled in India as per the Constitution. The role of the democratic government of India is to identify the marginalised castes and religious sects to give them opportunities similar to what the common citizens of India are entitled to. The constitutional rights will be dictated and amended for those marginalised groups as well. It is a long process that has several steps. To understand the entire concept of this chapter, you can refer to the simplified Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Notes.
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Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 7- Understanding Marginalisation Notes
Understanding Marginalisation: Class 8 Chapter 7 Civics Summary
The Indian Constitution dictates that every Indian has the right to be treated equally. One should get basic rights at the same level. Despite the fact, the old traditions and trends are still being practised and continued till date in the country. An instance is where people from different origins and religious minorities are treated in an unlawful way. They are made to settle with the fringes of basic rights and maintain their livelihood.
For instance, different communities and castes are prohibited from availing of resources that a citizen in India can be entitled to. They get less preference on many grounds, be it education or employment, and have to settle with the low-quality aspects of life. This is called marginalisation. A country can only move ahead to achieve a superior status when everyone is treated the same in terms of basic rights. This is why the young minds of Class 8 are taught the concepts of constitution and marginalisation.
The difference between the dominant and undermined sections of a society is well explained in this chapter. You need to understand why these marginalised people feel helpful and less powerful in various situations. The well-off or the affluent section enjoys more facilities and better power whereas the undermined section suffers from disadvantages due to the differences in their origin and caste.
Adivasis: The People Existing Before Modern Civilization
Adivasis or tribal people originating in the natural part of the Indian subcontinent are considered to be marginalised. As per the census report, nearly 8% of the population constituted Adivasis. They have lived in the jungles and other remote areas close to nature. This part of the Indian population stays close to the mining areas of Bhilai, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Rourkela, etc.
The states where you will find the presence of a higher rate of Adivasi settlement are Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and West Bengal. There are 60 significant tribes, in terms of population, that dwell in Orissa alone. In the north-eastern region of India, the seven sisters Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Mizoram, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Nagaland are dominated by the tribal people. They are extremely simple and differ remarkably from the privileged section. They do not have any hierarchy in society and have maintained the age-old customs to preserve harmony. Colour-based caste systems do not exist in these tribes.
Most of the Adivasis are nature worshippers. They have been practicing this norm for ages. The influence of this practice of nature-worshipping can be discovered in modern-day religious practices. The tribes were also approached by the Christian missionaries to convert them in the 19th Century. This is also an exceptional event in Indian history. Many Indian languages also originated from Adivasi dialects.
The marginalisation of these tribal people is nothing but stereotyping these people based on their cultures, activities, traditions, skin colour, and habitations. They are often mentioned as a backward section of the population that leads to a misconception among the modern dwellers. Many think that they are primitive, exotic, and culturally backward from the rest.
As per the Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Notes, the development of these tribes takes place in different phases of history.
Forests were the prime feature of the Indian subcontinent back in the 19th Century and before. These tribal people have excellent knowledge of natural resources. The emperors and kings depended on their knowledge to seek natural resources for development.
Before the Colonial Era, they lived scattered in the jungles, hills, and plain lands. After the advent of the Colonial rule, several economic changes, reforms, and policies forced them to live in the outskirts and compelled them to work in industries.
The time and value of the tribal people changed from the 1830s. They were considered as an excellent human resource element and were included for the economic development of the country.
Marginalisation of Minorities
Apart from the tribes, several minority groups and sects exist in India. they are also seen as an underprivileged and less-developed part of the population. Stereotyping them for their different tastes, colour, choices, practices is rampant. The Constitution of India guards the minorities against oppression and makes them feel safer. The government is amending laws and working relentlessly to lift them from their social status and give them equal treatment as per the constitution.
Download and follow the Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Notes for quick revision of this chapter.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Who are Adivasis?
The tribal people living in remote areas are called as Adivasis. The literal meaning of the term is people who are living since the old times.
2. Who are minorities?
Minorities are considered to be communities that are numerically smaller when compared to the major communities of a population.