Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 7 - PDF Download
Class 8 Civics Chapter 7 describes what marginalisation is and how it is tackled in India as per the Constitution. The role of the democratic government of India is to identify the marginalised castes and religious sects to give them opportunities similar to what the common citizens of India are entitled to. The constitutional rights will be dictated and amended for those marginalised groups as well. It is a long process that has several steps. To understand the entire concept of this chapter, you can refer to the simplified Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Notes.
Access Class 8 Political Science Civics Chapter 06 – Understanding Marginalization
Understanding the Meaning of Socially Marginalized:
The meaning of marginalized is to occupy the sides, not the center of things. For example, if you are playing cricket, you get marginalized by only being a team player, not a captain.
Various Reasons for Marginalization Are:
People follow different languages, different customs, belong to various religious groups, belong to different majority communities, poor people are called low-status people and less human from others, pointing to their inability to access their rights, making them feel a sense of powerlessness.
The sense of exclusion and difference with the marginalized groups leads the groups not to use the opportunities and resources and abolish their rights. They feel powerless and disadvantaged from high society. Certain groups of society feel marginalized socially, culturally, economically.
Adivasi are the communities or original inhabitants or tribes who have lived and w3ill continue to live close to the forest.
In India, around 8% of the population is tribal people or Adivasis.
The most vital mining, small-scale sectors, and industrial centers are situated within the Adivasi areas like Rourkela, Bokaro, Bhilai, Jamshedpur, and a lot more.
There are over 500 Adivasi groups in India particularly in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Odisha, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and north-eastern States- Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Nagaland, Mizoram.
In Odisha, you can find 60 different tribal groups who are grouped into scheduled Tribes and scheduled caste people and follow different hierarchical systems. They have believed in the principle of caste or Jati Varna since the king's ruling times.
Adivasis follow different tribal religions that involve praying to ancestors, spirits, mountain spirits, animal spirits, village spirits, etc. They do not follow religions such as Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, etc., but they influence us from the times of empires.
Many Adivasis followed worship in Lord Jagannath, Shakti, and Tantrik traditions from Orissa, Bengal, and Assam respectively but within the 19 century many Adivasis converted themselves to Christianity which became an important religion for them.
Adivasi speaks a different language which is different from the mainstream state languages. Above 70% of Adivasis speak the Santali language, and one can find many magazines and publications on the internet relating to this language.
Adivasis and Their Stereotypes:
Adivasi is shown in various stereotypical ways through dance, colorful costumes, headwear, lifestyle, and many more. This made them backward or exotic, but they are improving and changing themselves with the coming of new times and are trying to adopt new ideas.
Adivasis and Development
History of Adivasis:
Till 19-century forests covered a major part of the country and Adivasi had control and deep knowledge about it. They often help empires in accessing forest resources.
During the pre-colonial period, they were hunters who were also depending on shifting agriculture, cultivating, and leading a Nomadic life. Adivasi were forced to change their economic status, forest, and political policies by the public and private sectors. So they switched their jobs as workers in construction sites industries and domestic workers which forced them to leave the forest and its access.
After 1830, Adivasis moved to the States and some left the country and moved to countries like - Australia, Mauritius, and the Caribbean. In Assam, 70 lakhs Adivasi successfully launched a tea factory and have become famous for it.
Adivasis Stepping towards Development:
Slowly, forests were cleared for making industries and agriculture.
Adivasis were sheltered at places rich in natural resources, mining areas, minerals, and other industrial projects.
According to sources, over 50% of Adivasis were displaced due to the launching of mining projects. 79% of people vacate their lands and we're from Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Andhra Pradesh for building up a large number of dams in independent India.
The lands in northeast India were militarized to make 104 national parks over 40501 km2 of land and 543 wildlife sanctuaries, which cover 118918 km2 of land, were originally inhabited by tribal people. As the tribe got evicted from the forest, they did not get access to food and shelter, so they shifted to two cities searching for work and got employed in the local industries and construction sites.
Adivasi faced hardship and poverty where 45% of Adivasis live in rural areas and 35% in urban areas below the poverty line and facing problems such as unemployment, low literacy rate, malnourished children, loss of traditions and customs, and more.
Marginalization and Minorities:
The small communities concerning the rates of the population are referred to as MINORITIES.
The Indian constitution had permitted the majority of people in the society and government to express themselves, so the size of the community can be a disadvantage and may lead to marginalization. This was why safeguarding the minority community was necessary so that they would not get dominated by the majority. It protected them against discrimination and disadvantage that they could have faced.
The constitution provided safeguards to protect India's cultural diversity, promoting equality, justice, secured life, assets, and wellness of people while maintaining balanced relations between majority and minority communities.
Marginalization and Muslims:
In India, 14.2% of the population are mostly Muslims and considered as a marginalized community because www.vedantu.com they do not benefit from their socio-economic development.
In 2005 Justice Rajendra Sachar examined the Muslim community's social educational and economic status and suggested that they be a part of marginalized communities like SCs and STs.
Marginalization is a difficult theory that needs several measures, strategies, and safeguards to cope with the situation. People need to protect their rights, laws, and policies defined by the constitution without which we will not be able to protect the country's equality, diversity, and uniqueness.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. Who are Adivasis?
The tribal people living in remote areas are called as Adivasis. The literal meaning of the term is people who are living since the old times.
2. Who are minorities?
Minorities are considered to be communities that are numerically smaller when compared to the major communities of a population.