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Judiciary Class 8 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 5 (Free PDF Download)

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Judiciary Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 5 - PDF Download

Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 5 Judiciary will help the students understand and know the answers to questions like what do you mean by an independent judiciary? Or why do we need independent judiciary?

Class 8 Social Science Chapter 5 is about the different aspects of the Judiciary. Studying this chapter will explain what it is and how important it is for a democratic country. To develop your concepts related to this chapter, refer to the Class 8 SST Judiciary notes prepared by the subject experts of Vedantu. Use these notes to revise the chapter faster and complete your preparation before an exam to gain confidence.

Download CBSE Class 8 Political Science Revision Notes 2023-24 PDF

Also, check CBSE Class 8 Political Science revision notes for All chapters:

Access Class 8 Social Science Chapter 5 - Judiciary Notes


The judiciary is the system of courts that decides on legal disputes and legal cases. 

Importance of Judiciary

  • Judiciary is the guardian of the constitution.

  • The judiciary plays an important role in the interpretation of laws.

  • It keeps a check on the powers of the legislature and the executive.

Role of Judiciary

  • Resolution of dispute

  • Judicial review

  • Validating the law and applying fundamental rights

What is an Independent Judiciary?

The courts are not under the government. The independent functioning ensures that no power is misused by the executive or the legislature. The judges to the Supreme Court and High Court are appointed by the President of India after consultation with the Governor of the concerned state and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.


Structure of Courts in India

  • District court

  • High court 

  • Supreme court

The decision that is made in a higher court is bound to the lower courts.

Who has Access to Courts?

  • All the citizens of India have access to the courts.

  • Every citizen has the right to demand justice from the courts of India.

  • In the early 1980s, the Supreme Court started the mechanism of public interest litigation (PIL).

Why do we Need Judiciary?

Judiciary follows the principle of equality. When any law is violated, a certain set of fixed procedures need to be followed to uphold the law and to provide justice to the aggrieved person or persons. In order to enforce this rule of law, we need a judicial system. In India, this judicial system consists of the mechanism of courts, and citizens can approach these courts when a law is violated.

The judiciary is a critical organ of the government and it plays a crucial role in the efficient functioning of India’s democracy. The answer to why do we need an independent judiciary is that this independence allows the judiciary to play its role in a non-biased or influenced manner.

Role of Judiciary

The role of the judiciary can be understood by understanding its functioning. The judiciary performs the following roles.

  • Dispute Resolution: The mechanism of the judicial system helps in resolving disputes between the citizens, between the citizens and the government, between two state governments, and between the Centre and the State governments.

  • Judicial Review: The judiciary can strike down certain laws passed by the Parliament under its power of judicial review. This happens when the judiciary believes that these laws are a violation of the basic structure of the Constitution.

  • Upholding the Law and Enforcing Fundamental Rights: If the citizens of India believe that their Fundamental Rights have been violated, they can approach the Supreme Court or the High Court.

Independent Judiciary

An Independent Judiciary implies that:

  • The other branches of government which are the legislature and the executive, cannot interfere in the work of such a judiciary.

  • In an independent judiciary, the courts are not under the government and do not act on its behalf. This allows the courts in ensuring that the legislature and the executive leg do not misuse the power.

  • An independent judiciary plays a critical role in protecting the Fundamental Rights of citizens.

What is the Structure of Courts in India?

The structure of courts in India comprises if three tiers. Its three different levels are:

  1. District Court: The district courts are also called subordinate or Tehsil level courts and they settle the disputes for most people in the country.

  2. High Court: The highest court of every state in the country is the High court.

  3. Supreme Court: This is the court at the highest level. The Supreme Court of India is in Delhi. The decisions made by the Supreme Court are binding on all other lower courts in India.

As per the integrated judicial system followed in India, the decisions made by higher courts are binding on the lower courts. Under the appellate system of the judiciary in India, a person can appeal to a higher court if they believe that the judgment passed by the lower court is not right or justified.

Importance of Notes for CBSE Class 8 SST Chapter 5 Judiciary

The introduction of political science in the Social Science syllabus begins with various topics at various levels. In Class 8, students will study a crucial topic called the Judiciary and its importance for a democratic country. This chapter explains what the judiciary is and how it is formulated.

It also explains the different terms and topics linked to the judiciary. Hence, this new conceptual topic needs more attention from the students to study. Apart from the textbook content, students will need a precise version of the topics in the form of notes.

These notes have been prepared by following the CBSE guidelines to cover all the topics of this chapter in a concise manner. Studying these notes will offer a simpler explanation of all these topics to help students with their preparation for Class 8 SST Chapter 5.

Students can refer to these notes for revising the entire chapter in no time. The simpler format followed in these notes will enable them to memorise and recall the topics faster. They can also recall the same during an exam and can formulate the right answers to all the questions asked.

Benefits of CBSE Class 8 SST Chapter 5 Judiciary Notes

  • These notes, as mentioned earlier, have been formulated after carefully researching the whole chapter. All the topics have been concisely explained in these notes so that you can focus on the main points better and remember.

  • Recalling the easier version of the topics will not be a hassle. You can easily concentrate on these notes and complete preparing this chapter in no time. It will also make formulating precise answers during an exam easier.

  • These notes can be accessed anytime you want according to your study curriculum. Hence, resolving doubts will become a lot easier. You can find answers to all your queries quickly and can proceed with the preparation.

Download CBSE Class 8 SST Chapter 5 Judiciary Notes PDF

Why wait then? Get the free PDF version of these notes and download it to your computer. Use these notes to quickly prepare this chapter. Revise the chapter using these notes before an exam and develop your confidence. Focus on how simply the experts have explained the concepts and learn to use the same to compile correct answers and score more in the exams.


For an enhanced comprehension of this chapter “Judiciary” Class 8 notes, thoughtfully prepared by experienced teachers at Vedantu, are your invaluable companions. These notes break down the complexities of the Judiciary into easily digestible sections, helping you grasp new concepts, and navigate through questions effortlessly. By immersing yourself in the Class 8 Political Science Notes Chapter 5 Judiciary, you not only prepare for your exams more efficiently but also develop a profound understanding of the subject matter. 

FAQs on Judiciary Class 8 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 5 (Free PDF Download)

1. What are the Different Branches of the Legal System?

Ans: There are two branches of the legal system: criminal law and civil law. Let’s look at some of the key differences between these two branches.

Criminal Law

Civil Law

This branch of law deals with conduct or acts that are defined by the law as offences. Eg: Theft, dowry, murder, harassing a woman, etc.

This branch of law deals with any injury or harm to the rights of individuals. Eg: Disputes relating to purchase of goods, real estate disputes like sale of land and rent matters, divorce cases, etc.

If found guilty, the accused can be sent to jail or fined, or both in some cases.

In case of disputes related to the civil law, the court provides the specific relief that the aggrieved party has asked for.

The first step in case of criminal law matters is the lodging of a First Information Report (FIR) with the police. The police investigate the crime and then file a case in the court.

In the case of civil law matters, a petition needs to be filed by the affected party only, before the relevant court.

2. Do all the Citizens of India have a Right and Access to the Courts?

Ans: Every citizen of India has a right to justice through the courts. However, access to courts is still difficult for a vast majority of the poor in India as it involves a lot of money, paperwork as well as time.

3. What is the Structure of Courts in India?

Ans: The structure of courts in India has three levels:

  1. Supreme Court - The highest level.

  2. High Courts.

  3. District Courts.

4. Write down some examples of the following disputes.

(A) A dispute between the centre and the state

Ans: Disputes over voting share in the GST Council

(B) A dispute between two States

Ans: Kaveri River dispute between Karnataka and TamilNadu

(C) A dispute between two citizens

Ans: Property disputes in the country

(D) A dispute between two countries

Ans: Dispute over Aksai Chin between India and People’s Republic of China

5. What is the meaning of law and judiciary?

Ans: Law is the set of rules imposed by the government which is applied to govern the citizens of India. It helps to shape society's politics and economics in many ways.

The Judiciary is the system of courts that explains, defends, and applies the law in legal cases. The judiciary’s work is divided into three categories:

  • The resolution of the dispute

  • Judicial review

  • Validating the law and applying fundamental rights

6. What is a PIL?

Ans: PIL stands for Public Interest Litigation which is filed in a court for the protection of public interest such as pollution, safety, etc. PIL can be filed:

  • Against the government policies

  • For the violation of human rights and fundamental rights

  • For a complaint against civic authorities for not performing their duties

7. Explain the terms Acquit and Appeal

Ans: The term acquits means that the court has declared a person not guilty of the charges which they have been tried for in front of the court. To appeal means to file a petition before a higher court to listen to a case that has already been judged by a lower court.

8. What are the six major fundamental rights in the constitution of India?

Ans: The six major fundamental rights given in the Constitution of India are:

  • Right to equality

  • Right to freedom

  • Right against exploitation

  • Right to freedom of accepting any religion

  • Cultural and educational rights

  • Right to constitutional remedies