Why Do We Need a Parliament? Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 3 - PDF Download
Have you ever heard about a politician and politics but don’t know what it all really means, so what do you mean by Parliament? That’s alright because what goes on in the Parliament can be kind of confusing at times. The Parliament is the building in New Delhi where the people’s representatives from all over the country sit and legislate over new laws and which laws to pass. The Parliament is also the most important political body in a country because it decides which direction the country is going to by formulating and passing such laws. What goes on in the Parliament affects everything that happens in the country, which is why it is incredibly important.
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A legislative body of the government is a parliament. It allows citizens of India to participate in decision-making and be in charge of the government. Hence, it makes the most significant symbol of Indian democracy and a primary feature of the Constitution.
Why Should People Decide?
On 15th August, 1947, India got independence.
People used to fear the British government and were unable to give or agree with their decisions.
When the struggle for independence started, numerous people participated in the struggle and got inspired by the decision-making quality and ideas of freedom that were introduced by the freedom fighters.
They also faced backlash and were scared while opposing and criticizing the decisions made by the British government.
In1885The Indian National Congress demanded the legislature a right to discuss and ask questions about the budget by the elected members.
In 1909 The government of India act allowed the elected members to raise questions and participate in decision-making under British legislatures.
After independence, the citizens were free to participate in the decision-making process of the country indirectly by choosing the representatives of their choice.
The hopes and dreams of the freedom struggle have been made solid in the Constitution of independent India that set out the fundamental principle of a global adult franchise, i.e., that each and every grown-up citizen of the nation have the right to vote.
People and Their Representatives
The idea of democracy is all about the people’s participation in the political process. It is based on the concept of “consent “ of the people.
The decision by the people makes a government democratic and also decides its functioning.
The idea of democratic government is that the citizen of the country is an important person and the government and other public institutions need to have the trust of these citizens.
People elect their representative to the parliament and then the government is formed from these elected representatives.
The Parliament, which has been made up of all representatives jointly, regulates and directs the government. In this sense people, through the elected representatives, make up the government and also keep it under control.
The Role of Parliament
Established soon after 1947, the Indian Parliament constitutes an expression of the belief that the citizens of India have in principles of democracy. Parliament has great power as they do not represent the people.. Our country has numerous constituencies and each constituency selects one person to the parliament. The elected candidate becomes a member of parliament or MPs. These MPs together form the parliament. The Lok Sabha is voted once every five years. The candidates who generally contest elections belong to different political parties. The parliament performs various functions such as
a. Selecting the national government,
b. Making laws,
c. Controlling, guiding, and informing the government.
1. Selecting the National Government
The Indian parliament consists of the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha, and the president.
After the Lok Sabha elections have taken place, a list is prepared that reveals the number of MPs who belong to each political party. The political party that has the maximum number of its MPs elected to the Lok Sabha, is the winner and that party forms the government. Since there are 543 elected (plus two Anglo-Indian nominated) members in Lok Sabha, to have a majority a party should contain at least half the number i.e., 272 members or more. The members of the other political parties that do not have the majority, they constitute the Opposition in the parliament.
When different political parties join all together to make the government, this is known as a coalition government. This usually happens when a single party doesn’t get majority positions in Lok Sabha.
The leader of the majority party becomes the Prime Minister of the country and the rules of the Lok Sabha.
One of the major tasks that the prime minister has to perform once he comes to power is to assign Portfolios to its ministers. For example-Health, Defence, finance, Textile, etc. Lok Sabha chooses the executive who is a group of individuals who together enforce the laws that are generated by the parliament.
The Rajya Sabha
The Rajya Sabha is known as the upper house of the Indian parliament. It is the permanent house of the parliament.
It comprises 233elected members plus 12 members who are appointed by the president for their tremendous contributions to fields such as science, literature, art, etc. The other members are elected by the members of the legislative assembly of the states. The tenure of the member of the Rajya Sabha is 6 years with one-third of its members retiring every year.
The Rajya Sabha serves as the representative of the states of India in the parliament. Its main role is to review and alternate the laws passed by the Lok Sabha.
It also initiates the bills and legislation which passes through the Rajya Sabha and then goes to Lok Sabha for approval. A bill can only become a law after it has been passed by both houses.
To become a member of the Rajya Sabha, one must be a citizen of India with a minimum age of 30 He/she should possess all the qualifications laid by the parliament.
2. Control, Guide, and Inform the Government
The Parliament, at the same time in a session, starts with a question hour. The question hour is a significant mechanism by which the members of parliament can deliver information regarding the working of the government. This is the most important way in which the parliament can keep a check on the workings of the government and can also prevent it from becoming arbitrary in nature. The government is notified of its shortcomings through asking questions and also understanding the view of the individuals through their representatives in the Parliament, i.e., the members of parliament. The opposition plays an important role in the question hour as they are most critical of the policies and decisions of the government. They raise important questions regarding the demands of the people and the working of the government. The question hour also helps in increasing the political awareness of the people as the citizens of India get to know about the workings of the government.
3. Making of New Laws
Making laws is an important function of parliament. All the proposals from the legislative assembly are brought to the parliament in the form of bills. The bills are first introduced in the parliament house by any minister or member of parliament. Then it undergoes three readings:
1st Reading: Introduction of the bill in Lok Sabha or Rajya sabha
2nd Reading: Discussing the principles and provisions related to the bill. Later on, elaborating the considered bill clause by clause.
3rd Reading: Discussing the bill, as amended, to be passed.
Who are the People in Parliament?
The parliament has different people belonging from different backgrounds. They belong to different political parties and have different ideologies.
Over the years we have witnessed an increase in political participation by the Dalits, minorities, and backward classes.
In the parliament, some seats are reserved for SC and ST to give equal advantage to the backward section of the society. This helps in strengthening our democracy.
Important Questions and Answers
1. Who is the MLA and how does he/she get elected?
Ans: A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district (constituency) to the legislature of the State government in the Indian system of government. The people elect one representative from their constituency who becomes a member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA).
2. Following are some of the works done by the government. Fill in the blank with which government has done it (central or state government).
a. Introduction of a new train between Ajmer and Mysore.
Ans: Central government.
b. Introduction of a new 2000 rupee note.
Ans: Central government.
c. The decision of the Madhya Pradesh state government to discontinue board exams of class 8 students.
Ans: State government.
d. Appointing new candidates in the states.
Ans: State government.
e. Supporting and the making of an invention.
Ans: Central government.
f. Making decisions on a river dispute.
Ans. State government.
3. Why does our national government support the idea of the right to vote for all adults?
Ans: In the struggle for independence, people from different backgrounds came together to fight against the British government. Everyone wanted an independent, free and equal nation where the people have a role in decision-making. People wanted a country to be governed by leaders who can protect people's demands and needs. So, the national movement supported the idea of the right to vote for all adults.
4. Who is the prime minister of India and what is the function of the ministers selected by him?
Ans: The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the majority party. The prime minister selects the ministers from his party who work with him to make important decisions. They take charge of different areas of the government like finance, education, health, etc.
5. How does the parliament control, guide, and inform the government?
Ans: The parliament begins with a question hour in the winter session where important questions from different aspects are raised about the government's work. Through these questions, the government gets information about the situations and gets to know about people's demands and needs. The opposition party highlights the drawbacks of various programs and policies and mobilizes support for their own programs. The opposition acts as the main critic of the policies made by the government.
Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Notes
What Do You Mean by Parliament?
Parliament consists of a body of the people’s representatives and accommodates the members of the Central Government within it. The people directly elect the members of the Parliament and each member of the Parliament comes into power by contesting elections in a particular constituency of the country. In India, as part of the Parliament, we have the President of India, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, or the lower house and upper house, respectively.
In the Lok Sabha, there are 543 constituencies with 2 extra reserved for the Anglo-Indian community in India. In the Rajya Sabha, there are 245 members, of which 12 people excelling in their fields of arts, sciences, etc. are nominated by the President of India. Bills are passed from one house or sabha to the other before the President’s signature is put on the bill to finally turn it into law. Thus, the Parliament is a place for deliberation and discussion of laws before they are passed and what goes on in Parliament determines the political climate going on in the rest of the country.
Why Do We Need A Parliament?
A government consists of the representatives chosen by the people of a country, and this is through the democratic process of free and fair elections. In a country as vast as India, with over a billion people, and thousands of different languages and cultures, and here comes why we need Parliament. Surely, we cannot inculcate what every single person wants, which is why we go with majorities in our country. However, the Parliament also includes the representatives that have been elected by the minorities in the country as well. It is inclusivity which is the biggest reason why we need Parliament, and without it, the ruling of the country will be extremely unfair and unjust.
Functions of Parliament (Class 8)
The Parliament plays an incredibly important role in the politics and general functioning of a country. Let’s take a look at a few of these roles of the Parliament in the functioning of a country:
To Constitute the National Government
In the Parliament, there is a mix of several political parties, and the one with the highest vote share is the one that comes into power as the ruling party, also known as the government. The remaining parties are all the opposition of the ruling party, and this is how the national government comes to be selected.
To Select the Cabinet and Other Ministers
It is the job of the Prime Minister to select who she wants in her cabinet, and it is also the discretion of the Prime Minister to decide who will take up responsibilities of the other ministries.
To Select the Executive
The executive is one of three organs of the government along with the legislature (i.e. the Parliament). It is the Parliament’s job to select the members of committees and departments coming under the executive.
Keeping the Government in Check
Before every session of Parliament begins, there is a question hour where opposition parties can question the ruling party in whichever matter of political relevance. This shows the government that people are watching and that its actions must be explained when asked about. It keeps the activities of the present government in check and disallows the misuse of governmental power.
To Make Laws
This is the primary function of the Parliament - making laws. Deliberations and discussions go on in the Parliament about what kind of laws should be made, on what topics, in what capacities, etc. Bills are written in the Parliament and passed from one house to another before they can become a law, thus the opinions of the members of both houses are considered in the drafting of laws for a country.
Vedantu's free PDF download of CBSE Class 8 Political Science Chapter 3 notes, "Why Do We Need a Parliament?" serves as an invaluable educational resource. These notes offer a comprehensive understanding of the role and importance of parliament in the context of Indian democracy. Vedantu's commitment to providing high-quality educational materials ensures that students have access to well-structured and informative resources that enhance their comprehension of the subject. These notes not only facilitate academic excellence but also cultivate a deeper appreciation for the democratic processes that govern our nation. Vedantu's dedication to accessible education makes these CBSE Class 8 Political Science Chapter 3 notes an essential tool for students aiming to excel in their political science studies.
FAQs on Why Do We Need a Parliament? Class 8 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 3 (Free PDF Download)
1. What is a coalition government?
A lot of times, a single political party may not win enough votes on its own to win any relevant seats during the elections. In this case, two or more political parties can come together to form a coalition which will allow them to share their votes with one another. An example of coalitions is the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) coalition which consists of the Indian National Congress, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and other parties. Another example is the NDA or the National Democratic Alliance led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and has member parties like the Janata Dal-United (JDU) and National People’s Party (NPP).
2. What are the functions of parliament (class 8)?
The Parliament consists of the people’s representatives and has several important functions to facilitate the government in keeping the country running. Some of them are:
Constituting the national government by having a mix of the ruling party members as well as its opposition.
Selecting the cabinet ministers as well as other ministers.
Selecting the departments and committee members of the executive.
To keep the government under check by utilising question hour to enquire about what the government is doing, the morale behind it and also the legality and sanctity of their position.
To draft bills and pass them as laws.
3. What is the role of Parliament in a democratic country?
In a democratic country, Parliament plays a pivotal role in representing the will and interests of the people. It enacts laws, scrutinizes government actions, and ensures accountability, making it a cornerstone of the democratic system.
4. Why is it important to have a separate legislature in addition to the executive and judiciary?
A separate legislature, like Parliament, ensures a system of checks and balances. It prevents the concentration of power in one branch and ensures that laws are made and scrutinized independently, reducing the risk of abuse of power.
5. How does Parliament promote inclusivity and diversity in decision-making?
Parliament represents the diversity of a nation's population. Members come from various regions, backgrounds, and communities, ensuring that different perspectives and voices are considered in the decision-making process.
6. What are the key functions of the Indian Parliament as discussed in Chapter 3 Why Do We Need a Parliament? Class 8?
Chapter 3 discusses the legislative, executive, and oversight functions of the Indian Parliament. It explores how Parliament makes laws, examines government policies, approves budgets, and ensures accountability.
7. How can the knowledge gained from studying Why Do We Need a Parliament? Class 8 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 3 be applied in real-life situations?
The insights from this chapter help students understand the importance of parliamentary democracy, the role of elected representatives, and the significance of citizen engagement in the democratic process. This knowledge is essential for informed citizenship and active participation in the democratic system.