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The Indian Constitution Class 8 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 1 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 09th Apr 2024
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The Indian Constitution Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 1 - PDF Download

The constitution is an integral part of the law of a country. Every citizen of a country should be aware of their constitution. Students are the future citizens of a country. They have to be involved in social life. The students should perform some social duties as responsible citizens of a country. So, the secondary education board of our country has included the constitution chapter in the Class 8 Civics syllabus. From this chapter, the students will get a brief knowledge of the constitution of our country from an early age. The students should study class 8 Civics Chapter 1 notes sincerely to have a clear concept of this chapter.

The Indian Constitution Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 1 - Summary and Key Topics

Every country has a collection of laws that govern how the country operates. The Indian Constitution is a set of laws and concepts that aid in the governance of the Indian country. CBSE Class 8 Political Science Chapter 1 According to the Indian Constitution, the Constitution of India was created by the Constituent Assembly, which was convened in December 1946. After two years, eleven months, and eighteen days, the Constituent Assembly finished drafting the constitution. Pupils will also learn that the Indian Constitution was enacted on November 26, 1949. It went into effect on January 26, 1950.

Further, the chapter elaborates on the main features of the Indian Constitution, which are Federalism, a parliamentary form of government, separation of powers, fundamental rights, an independent judiciary, and secularism. Students of Class 8 Civics will also gain knowledge of the six fundamental rights that have been granted to all citizens of India by the Indian Constitution. Download the free PDF of Class 8 Revision Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 1 to learn about the chapter in detail.

Some of the Major Topics of Chapter 1 Class 8 Political Science Include:

  • Importance and significance of the constitution

  • Key features of the Indian Constitution

  • Federalism

  • Parliamentary form of government

  • Separation of powers: the three organs of government – legislature, executive, and judiciary

  • Fundamental Rights

  • Secularism

Download CBSE Class 8 Political Science Revision Notes 2023-24 PDF

Also, check CBSE Class 8 Political Science revision notes for All chapters:

Access Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 The Indian Constitution Notes

Why Does a Country Need a Constitution?

  1. INC in 1934 i.e Indian National Congress raised a demand for Constituent Assembly which gained momentum during the Second World War and thus formed in December 1946 and then this assembly was created from 1946 to 1949, the Constitution of India, which was adopted finally on Jan 26, 1950.

  2. Unity was there amongst all the members and all the provisions and articles and important points were discussed first to reach the final conclusion.

  3. All democracies of the world are likely to have a Constitution, but not all countries that have a Constitution are necessarily a democracy.

  4. A Constitution serves as a set of rules and regulations that every citizen of a country should agree upon, the basis of how they wish to be governed.

  5. The Constitution of a country states the fundamental nature of its society.

  6. In a democratic country or society, the Constitution lays down the rules and regulations that safeguard us against the political leaders' abuse of authority and power.

  7. The constitution makes sure that no dominant group uses its power against minority communities or its less powerful citizens.

  8. The constitution protects us against harmful decisions that can hurt the broader principles the country believes in.

  9. It reflects our political system.

  10. In a democracy, the leaders or representatives are chosen by the citizens who exercise their powers to run the government on their behalf. 

  11. No law of the country can change the basic structure of the Constitution.

  12. Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel as well as Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (Father of the Constitution) were also part of the constitution-making body i.e Constituent Assembly.

The Indian Constitution: Key Features

1. Federalism

  • It infers the presence of more than one level of government i.e. in the centre and the states in a country.

  • In India, we have a central government, state-level governments, and Panchayati Raj in every village.

  • The three-tier division helps people in enjoying the autonomy in exercising powers on various issues.

  • The Constitution provides a list of subjects for all the tiers that specify the law-making authority of each tier.

  • The Constitution specifies the source of revenue for each tier of the government.

  • The Constitution guides and provides authority to function to the states.

  • Indian citizens are governed by the laws and regulations made by these levels of government.

2. Parliamentary Form of Government

  • It refers to the presence of Parliament in the country which makes law and according to which the Prime Minister is considered as the Head of the Government.

  • The Constitution of India guarantees Universal Adult Suffrage to all its citizens with respect to their roles in electing their representatives.

  • Besides this, every citizen also has the right to contest elections.

3. Separation of Powers

There are three main organs of the government:

  • Legislature: It refers to the elected representatives by the people. The legislature is entitled to make laws.

  • Executive: The executive is that branch of government which exercises its authority in the implementation of the laws enacted by the legislature.

  • Judiciary: The judiciary is responsible for keeping a check on the equitable and proper implementation of the laws. The Supreme Court (highest Judicial body) of India is considered as the final authority to interpret the provisions of the Constitution.

4. Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights are basic rights guaranteed by the Constitution to its people. This protects the people from the misuse of the powers of the state. The Constitution of India lists six fundamental rights for its citizens, namely:

  1. Right to Equality

  2. Right to Freedom

  3. Right against Exploitation

  4. Right to Freedom of Religion

  5. Cultural and Educational Rights

  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies

5. Secularism

A state is called secular when it doesn't promote any one religion as the official state religion. For example, India does not have any official state religion. People from different castes and religions reside together here.

Important Questions and Answers

1. What is the constitution?

Ans: The Constitution is a set of rules and regulations that governs the people of a country. It constitutes of various fundamentals that help us to know the nature of society that exists in a country.

2. State three reasons why we need a Constitution.

Ans: The three reasons that justify the need for a Constitution are:

  • It lays down the ideas that govern a country or society. It helps to serve as a set of rules that all the people of a country mutually agree upon to abide by. 

  • It defines the nature and features of the political system of a country. The constitution lays down the rules and regulations that safeguard us against the political leaders' abuse of authority and power. The constitution makes sure that no dominant group uses its power against minority communities or less powerful citizens.

  • The constitution protects us against harmful decisions that can hurt the broader principles the country believes in.

3. When was the Indian Constitution written?

Ans: It took three long years i.e. from December 1946 to November 1949 to complete the drafting of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution was adopted on 26th November, 1949 and came into effect on 26th January, 1950.

4. Who was the Chairman of the Constitution drafting committee?

Ans: Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Constitution drafting committee.

5. Write a note on the freedom struggle in Nepal.

Ans: The freedom struggle in Nepal:

  • The people's struggle for freedom started in 1990.

  • Democracy was ascertained, but it only lasted 12 years. 

  • The Constitution adopted by Nepal in 1990 reflected that the final authority lies with the King.

  • King Gyanendra, with the assistance of the army, began taking over the government in 2002. In 2005, he finally took over the government.

  • In 2006, the movement of democracy started and the third parliament was restored in April.

  • In 2008, Nepal abolished the monarchy and adopted democracy. 

  • It takes time to form new rules and regulations, finally in 2015 Nepal adopted a new constitution.

6. What are the downsides of a democratic society?

Ans: The downsides of a democratic society are the following:

  • In a democratic society, powers can easily be misused.

  • The majority community can undermine the minority community.

  • Without a set of rules, there is a strong possibility of making incorrect decisions that may harm society as a whole or have serious adverse effects.

7. How does the constitution protect minority communities?

Ans: The Constitution protects the minority communities by: 

  • Assuring that the majority group doesn't abuse its power against the minorities.

  • It contains a set of rules that ensure that the minorities are included in the society to the extent as that of the majority.

8. State the highlights of the text prepared by Dr. Ambedkar.

Ans: The highlights of the text prepared by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar are: 

  • Federalism

  • Separation of powers

  • Parliamentary form of government

  • Directive Principles of State Policy

  • Freedom to practise any religion of one's choice

  • Economic rights and social rights for women

  • Constitutional assurances and safety of all citizens

  • Prohibition of untouchability

  • Outlawing any form of discrimination

  • Reservation for STs and SCs in areas like civil service jobs and educational institutions.

  • Exercise of Voting Rights.

9. What do you mean by universal adult franchise?

Ans: It refers to the right to vote given to all the citizens of a country who are more than a certain prescribed years of age regardless of their gender, caste, creed, financial, and educational status.

For example: In India, the legal age to cast a vote is 18 years. However, for some other countries, this may be different.

10. State the two-fold objectives of fundamental rights.

Ans: The two-fold objectives of fundamental rights are:

  • That every person must be in a position to claim these rights.

  • The Fundamental Rights must be binding upon the state or the authority that has the power to enact laws.

11. What does the term "State" mean?

Ans: The term "State" can refer to the authorities or the political institutions formed by the Constitution to enact laws for people living in a determined territory or place.

Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 The Indian Constitution Notes

Necessity of Constitution in a Country 

Every democratic country has a written constitution. But not every country that has a constitution needs to be democratic. The constitution of a country shapes its fundamental nature of society. The Constitution makes sure that the country is under discipline and governed in a certain way. All the citizens can agree upon a natural decision of the constitution. Three vital reasons to have a constitution are:

  • The Constitution prevents the improper power use of the dominant groups against the less powerful people.

  • The constitution ensures that political leaders use their power in the wrong way and harm citizens.

  • The constitution of a country protects the citizens from the effective adverse decision on large principles of the country.


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Characteristics of the Indian Constitution  

Civics in Social Science Class 8 Chapter 1 presents an overview of our country's constitution. Every culture has its own set of norms that set it apart from the rest. Certain special norms are required in a big group or culture, such as a country. The rules keep the country's discipline. These constitutive norms are available in writing form in modern nations. Our country's constitution is written in this style. India has a constitution with several fundamental aspects that must be obeyed. The major aspects of the Indian constitution Class 8 are briefly addressed below.

Federalism: The government having more than one level in a country is called federalism. The Indian constitution has federalism in its rules. There are several government levels in our country, such as state-level government, Panchayati level government, central level, etc. Federalism contains the collective law system of different government levels. The constitution decides the activities of each tier of government. This policy of federalism governs all citizens of India.

Parliamentary Government Form: India is a republic country. Every citizen of India has the right to elect their favourite representative and have a direct role in the election. Also, the citizens can be the representative with eligibility criteria and contest in the election.

Power Separation: Indian government power is separated into three different organs. Three government organs are –

  • The citizens elect the representation, and that person is called the legislature.

  • The group that runs the government and implements laws are called the executive.

  • The court system of India is called the judiciary.

Fundamental Rights: The citizens of India have some individual rights, which are called fundamental rights. The fundamental rights of Indian citizens are-

  • Right to freedom

  • Right to equality

  • Right to freedom of religion

  • Right to constitutional remedies

  • Rights against exploitation

  • Cultural and educational rights 

The objectives of fundamental rights are-

  • The rights must be upon the in-charge authority, which makes the law.

  • The citizens must be able to claim fundamental rights.

Secularism: In secular countries, the states do not have the right to promote any specific religion. The citizens of a secular country can have any religion. The Indian constitution includes secularism, and that is why India is a secular country.

Benefits of Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 the Indian Constitution Notes

1. The revision notes have been prepared in a concise manner, using short paragraphs and bulleted lists. All fundamental concepts have been well explained in simple and comprehensible language.

2. Students can use this as a guide for exam preparation while revising. It will ensure quicker revision and better retention of key concepts and topics.

3. The revision notes also contain solved important questions from the chapter. Practising these questions after a thorough reading and understanding of the chapter will help students prepare well and perform confidently in the exam.


Vedantu's Class 8 CBSE Political Science Chapter 1 notes on the Indian Constitution offer a valuable and comprehensive resource for students. With a free PDF download, these notes provide a clear and concise understanding of the fundamental principles and features of India's Constitution. Covering essential topics such as Preamble, key components of the Constitution, and its significance, the notes cater to the needs of CBSE students. Vedantu's commitment to offering high-quality educational materials makes these notes a commendable aid for learners seeking to grasp the foundations of Indian democracy. Embracing these notes can undoubtedly enhance students' knowledge and appreciation of their nation's constitutional framework.

FAQs on The Indian Constitution Class 8 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 1 (Free PDF Download)

1. What is the necessity of studying class 8 social science chapter 1?

Class 8 social science civics chapter 1 gives the knowledge of the Indian constitution. As a responsible citizen of the country, the students should perform social duties. To perform social duties, the students have to know the social life and the rules of society. The constitution is the supreme social rule of a country. Therefore, students must know the Indian constitution. They should read class 8 social science civics chapter 1 sincerely. From this chapter, they will have the primary idea of the constitution. Also, they will get to know the history of the Indian constitution, the formation of the Indian constitution, Key features of Indian constitution, etc.

2. Describe the formation process of the Indian constitution?

Every democratic country needs a constitution. In 1946, the Indian constitution was drafted. First and foremost, a constituent assembly of 300 individuals was created. The Indian constitution was written cooperatively by that group of persons. Several aspects have to be considered while crafting the constitution. They concentrate on India's many faiths and dialects. That is why secularism was included in the constitution. Essential restrictions were introduced to prevent dominant organisations and leaders from abusing their power. The writing group considered people' individual rights and liberties when drafting the Indian constitution, which includes basic rights and publicity. As a result, the Indian constitution was created with social life in mind.

3. What is a constitution?

The constitution is an important element of a country's legal system. A country's constitution should be known to all of its citizens. Students are a country's future citizens. They must participate in social activities. As responsible citizens of a country, students should undertake some social obligations. For a democratic country like India, it is very crucial to have such a legal document of rules and regulations for smooth working of the government and its citizens.

4. What is the necessity of the Constitution in a Country?

A written constitution exists in every democratic country. However, any country with a constitution does not have to be democratic. The basic essence of a country's society is shaped by its constitution. The Constitution ensures that the country is governed in a consistent and orderly manner. A natural decision of the constitution can be reached by all citizens. Without a constitution, there will be no set of rules and regulations and nothing will be illegal. For more information and revision notes students can download the Vedantu app.

5. What are the basics of Chapter 8 Social Science Chapter 1?

Chapter 1 of Social Science Civics in Class 8 gives a basic understanding of our country's constitution. Every civilization has its own set of norms that distinguishes it from the rest. Some particular regulations are required in a big group or culture, such as a country. The rules help to keep the country in order. These constitutional rules are available in written form in modern countries. To revise these concepts, download the NCERT notes for Class 8 social science free of cost from the vedantu website (

6. What is Federalism?

Federalism refers to a country's mode of government wherein there are many levels. The rules of the Indian constitution include federalism. In our nation, there are various tiers of government, including state-level government, Panchayati level government, federal level government, and so on. Federalism refers to the system of collective law that exists at many levels of government. The activities of each layer of government are determined by the constitution. All Indian nationals are governed by this federalist doctrine.

7. Why is India a secular country?

States in secular countries do not have the authority to promote any one religion. Citizens of a secular nation are free to practise any faith. India is a secular country because of its constitution, which includes secularism. Indians are free to practise any religion and practise.  All the citizens have their own rights and nobody can suppress another due to differences in religion. People with different faiths can work together and can even marry each other. Different people with different religions living on the same land is known as secularism.