CBSE Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 10 Notes - Law and Social Justice

Law and Social Justice Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 10 - PDF Download

As per the law on minimum wages, a worker must be paid at least the minimum wage by the employer. Various other laws protect the interests of producers and consumers in the market. The law ensures that the relations between the three parties - the worker, consumer and producer are governed in a way that is not exploitative. By creating, enforcing, and upholding laws, the government can control the activities of individual or private companies to ensure social justice.

CBSE Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 10 Notes - Law and Social Justice part-1

Law and Social Justice Revision Notes

How is Government Ensuring Law and Social Justice for Society?

Below are some insights on how the government is ensuring proper rights, laws and social justice for the society.


What is a Worker’s Worth?

In India, due to large scale unemployment, any worker can be easily replaced by another. Many workers are ready to work in perilous conditions just for the sake of a wage. Hence, even several years post the Bhopal gas tragedy, there are regular reports of accidents in construction sites, mines, or factories due to the callous attitude of the employers.

A worker’s worth is the value he/she has in the eyes of an industry he/she is employed in.


Enforcement of Safety Laws

The government has to make sure that safety laws are executed. The government must see to it that the Right to Life secured under Article 21 of the Constitution is not breached.

As we can infer from the Bhopal Gas Tragedy, the oversight of the government is the reason for such a hazardous disaster.

  1. Government officials denied identifying the plant as hazardous and allowed it to be built in a populated locality.

  2. The government did not ask the Union Carbide to shift to cleaner technology or safer procedures.

  3. Government inspectors continued to approve the processes in the plant, even when repeated incidents of leaks from the plant made it evident to everybody that things were severely wrong.

Safety was being neglected both by the government and private companies in this instance.


New Laws to Protect the Environment

The environment was considered as a ‘free’ entity, and any sector could pollute the air and water without any limitations. The Bhopal disaster brought the problem of the environment to light. In response to this, the Indian government started new laws on the environment.

The Right to Life, a Fundamental Right under Article 21 of the Constitution, includes the right to the enjoyment of pollution-free air and water. The courts gave numerous judgments upholding the right to a healthy environment as a Fundamental Right to Life. The government sets up the laws and procedures to check air pollution, water pollution to ensure clean rivers and simultaneously introduce heavy fines on the violation.

The government controls the activities of private enterprises by formulating, enforcing and upholding laws to prevent all unfair practices and to ensure social justice. Laws that are weak & poorly enforced can cause serious harm, just like the Bhopal gas tragedy showed. Citizens must also exert pressure so that both the government and private companies act simultaneously in the interests of society.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What are the Benefits to Foreign Companies in Setting up Production Units in India?

Ans. Following are the advantages which the foreign companies earn by setting up production houses in India.

  • Cheap labour availability.

  • Longer work hours at low wages.

  • Least overheads like housing facilities for employees/workers.

  • Heavy Cost-cutting with lower working conditions and lower safety measures.

Thus, setting up the production of foreign companies in India can save costs and give higher profits in India.

Q2. Discuss if You Think the Victims of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy got Justice?

Ans. The sufferers of the Bhopal gas tragedy never got complete justice. The Bhopal tragedy was caused due to neglecting safety measures by the factory management. The Indian government represented the people to legally claim compensation for the affected people and demanded 3 billion dollars as compensation. But the company paid 470 million dollars. Today also, after 36 years, people are still seeking justice. Though the financial compensation for the families was adequate, many of them are still struggling for safe-drinking water, jobs and healthcare facilities.

Q3. What is Law Enforcement? Who is Responsible for Law Enforcement? Why is Law Enforcement Important?

Ans. Law enforcement refers to the implementation of the law. Government passes the laws and have to be enforced so that the citizens can avail benefit from these laws.


The government enforces the laws, and this enforcement is vital to safeguard the rights of the citizens. This enforcement protects the weak from the strong section of society. It also controls the activities of individuals or private companies to ensure a safe working environment and complete social justice.

Q4. How can Laws Ensure Fair Working in Markets? Explain with Two Examples.

Ans. With proper Laws, fair working in markets can be ensured. Here are two examples:

  • Right Against Exploitation: It states that no one can be forced to work at low wages or beneath any bond.

  • Child Labour Prevention Act: According to this law, no child below 14 years can be employed for any employment like domestic help, etc.

The laws passed by the government to ensure that there is no exploitation and overworking by the companies. It also monitors market prices of essential products such as kerosene, sugar, food grain, etc.

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