A flood is the overflow of water onto the land that is usually dry. Flood is one of the recurring natural disasters. The damage caused by floods is up to 90% compared to other natural disasters, for example, in India about one-eight part of the land is affected by floods. Flood usually causes loss of life and large scale destruction of public and government properties. Floods also cause unimaginable destruction to agricultural fields. The damage caused by floods is known as flood damage.
In this flood essay in English, we will discuss the different causes of floods, types of floods, effects of floods on people, and the methods by which flood control and management can be done.
Causes of Floods
There are many reasons for which flood can occur and a few are given below.
Heavy rainfall is considered to be the primary cause of floods. When heavy rainfall occurs in a short amount of time and if there is no proper drainage system there will be an accumulation of a large amount of water in a small area that would result in flooding.
Siltation in rivers- with an increased concentration of sand and clay particles in the river bed, the water carrying capacity of the river is reduced. This will lead to floods when there is heavy rainfall.
Blockage of drains can be considered as the primary cause of floods in urban areas.
Melting down snow and ice due to global warming could lead to rising sea levels which results in floods.
Types of Floods
There are different types of floods. Each one is divided based on the factors of how it occurs and the damage it causes.
River Floods- When there is heavy rainfall for a prolonged period, the water level in the river rises as a result of which the capacity of the river bed to hold excess water decreases. This will lead to river flooding. River flooding could cause excessive damage to the nearby areas, it could destroy agricultural fields. To prevent river flooding, a proper defence should be made around the river so that even if the water level rises when it rains heavily, the river should not overflow.
Flash Floods- When there is heavy rainfall and if the ground cannot absorb the water as quickly as expected, this might lead to a flash flood. Flash flooding could be prevented by providing a proper drainage system so that even if the ground cannot absorb water it could be drained easily.
Coastal Flood- Coastal flooding is often caused by extreme windstorms. The rise in the sea level, extreme weather conditions, and high tides can be considered as the main cause of coastal flooding. coastal flooding is considered to be the most dangerous of all types of flooding. The rise in the sea level occurs due to the melting of snow and ice which is the result of global warming could be considered as the reason for coastal flooding.
Methods to Control Flood
There are flood control methods that can be used to control floods which could be implemented by the government. Planting vegetation to retain extra water and terracing hillsides to slow the flow of water downhill are some of the methods that were used in ancient times. Other floods controlling methods include controlling the water level in dams and checking dams regularly. Installation of rock beams, sandbags and maintaining a normal slope could also be done to maintain overflow of water. Flash flooding could be avoided if the drainage system is strengthened properly.
An effective system should be developed to store the extra water whenever it rains heavily. Collected water could be further used for rainwater harvesting purposes.
Short Essay on Flood
A flood is the overflow of water into the land that was usually dry. The damage caused by floods is most dangerous compared to other natural disasters. The damage caused by floods includes the loss of innocent lives and the destruction of public and government properties. The damage caused by a flood is called flood damage.
One of the primary reasons for floods is considered to be heavy rainfall. When there is heavy rainfall in a particular area, the water is accumulated and that causes flooding. Other causes of floods include siltation of rivers, no proper drainage system in urban areas, and melting of snow and ice due to global warming.
There are a few methods that could be implemented to control floods and the destruction caused by floods. Controlling the water level in dams and checking the dams regularly could result in avoiding the overflow of water. Installation of rock beams, sandbags and maintaining a normal slope could also be done to maintain overflow of water. Planting vegetation to retain extra water and terracing hillsides to slow the flow of water downhill is one of the methods to control flooding. Maintaining a proper drainage system could help in controlling the flooding of water in urban areas.