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Mineral and Power Resources Class 8 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 3 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 28th Feb 2024
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IVSAT 2024

Mineral and Power Resources Class 8 Notes Geography Chapter 3 - PDF Download

A mineral is a naturally occurring substance having a definite chemical composition. Minerals are formed by natural processes and do not require any human interference. Minerals are generally formed in various environments and under different conditions. Minerals can be made of one element or more than one element combined in different proportions. Minerals are unevenly distributed throughout the space. Some minerals are found in areas that are not easily accessible to humans. A mineral can be identified by its physical characteristics such as colour, density, and strength, and they can also be identified by chemical properties. 

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Access Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 - Mineral & Power Resources Notes

  • A mineral is called as a naturally occurring material that possesses a definite chemical composition. There is also an unequal distribution of minerals all over the world.There might be a different concentration of different minerals in particular zone. Sometimes minerals can’t be accessed due to remote conditions. There are various types of minerals which are deposited in specific regions of the earth depending upon different environmental conditions. Some of the minerals are power resources that are of immense significance with respect to industry, agriculture, transport, communication and defence.

  • Approximately three thousand types of minerals can be found on the earth’s crust.

  • Minerals are generally divided into two categories depending upon the composition namely metallic and non- metallic.

  • Raw types of metal are usually present in the metallic minerals. Metals can be  classified as hard components which carry out heat and electricity. Few examples of such metallic minerals are iron ore, bauxite, manganese ore etc.

  • Metallic minerals can also be classified into two categories namely ferrous & non-ferrous. Examples of such ferrous minerals are iron ore, manganese and chromites etc.

  • If iron is absent in minerals then it can be termed as a non-ferrous mineral. There might be the presence of other metals such as gold, silver, copper etc in the non-ferrous metal.

  • If there is absence of any kind of metal then it can be termed as non-metallic minerals. Example of non-metallic minerals are limestone, mica and gypsum. Coal & petroleum are also examples of non-metallic minerals.

  • Minerals can normally be extracted by 3 ways namely mining, drilling and quarrying. The process of mining can be categorised in two ways namely open cast mining & shaft mining.

Mineral Distribution

  • Minerals can generally be found in the various types of rocks. Few types of minerals can also be found in igneous rocks & other kinds are found in metamorphic rocks. The other forms of minerals are normally found in sedimentary rocks. Generally, metallic minerals can also be identified in igneous & metamorphic rocks. Non-metallic minerals are generally found in the sedimentary rocks of plains & young fold mountains. Continent wise distribution of minerals is discussed in the following:

  • Asia: Largest iron ore deposits can be identified in India and China. Half of world’s tin is produced by this continent. The world’s largest tin producers are China, Malaysia and Indonesia. There are also huge deposits of manganese, bauxite, nickel, zinc and copper in this continent.

  • Europe: The countries like Russia, Sweden and France make Europe one of the leading producers of iron ore. There are also sufficient quantities of Zinc, copper, lead and nickel deposition in Europe.

  • North America: North America is also very rich in terms of minerals which consist of iron ore, nickel, gold and copper.

  • South America: It hasHigh-grade iron ore which is largely produced in Brazil. The countries like Venezuela, Argentina, Chile and Columbia are world leaders in producing gold, silver, chromium, manganese etc.

  • Africa: Africa is normally considered to be the world’s largest producer of the diamond. Apart from that, gold, platinum, zinc, copper etc are also adequately produced in Africa.

  • Australia: Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world. There is also sufficient production of gold, diamond, iron ore, tin & nickel in this continent.

  • Antarctica: There is a sufficiently large deposition of it in the Transantarctic Mountains. On the other hand, there is also a prediction of a large deposit of iron in the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica.

Distribution of Minerals in India

  • Iron: It is normally found in states of Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

  • Bauxite: Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are main producers.

  • Mica: Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan & Andhra Pradesh.

  • Copper: Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh are major producers. 

  • Manganese: Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu & Gujarat have sufficient quantities 

  • Limestone: Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu

  • Gold: Karnataka is major reservoir

  • Salt: Various seas, lakes & rocks

  • Use of Minerals

  • Various industries are completely dependent upon the use of minerals.

  • Hard minerals are normally used in gems and placed in different forms of jewellery.

  • From coins to pipes, every single item can be seen as  made of copper.

  • There is also extensive use of silicon in the computer industry.

Conservation of Minerals

Minerals are such resources of nature which are not renewable in nature. Minerals are normally formed & concentrated by thousands of years. The wastage must be reduced in the mining procedure. Mineral resources can also be conserved by the process of recycling.

Power Resources

  • Power resources are divided into two categories namely conventional and non-conventional resources.

  • Conventional Sources of energy: resources which can been commonly used for a long time are known as conventional sources. The primary conventional energy resources are firewood and fossil fuels.

  • Firewood: Firewood is also largely used in cooking and heating. Near about 50% of the energy is used by villagers in India originates from firewood.

  • Fossil fuels: Fossil fuels are made by the conversion of remains of plants and animals buried under the earth by heat and pressure. The basic resource of conventional energy is coal, petroleum & natural gas.

  • Coal: The most abundantly found fossil fuel in the earth is coal. Coal is generally utilised as domestic fuels in various industries like iron & steel, steam engines and to produce electricity. Electricity generated from coal is called as thermal power. Another name of coal is “buried sunshine” as of its formation procedure. The largest coal producers of India are areas of Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro.

  • Petroleum: Petroleum is also identified between the layers of rocks and is drilled from oil fields situated in off-shore and coastal regions. Different types of products such as diesel, petrol, kerosene, wax, plastics and lubricants are produced by the crude oil refined from the Petroleum. It is so valuable that it is called the Black Gold. The largest producer of Petroleum in India is Digboi in Assam. Apart from that, Bombay High in Mumbai and the Krishna and Godavari river deltas are also rich in Petroleum.

  • Natural Gas: Natural gas can be formed in deposits of Petroleum and is discharged at the time of bringing crude oil to the surface. It can be utilized in the form of domestic and industrial fuel. Jaisalmer, Krishna and Godavari delta etc are rich in natural gas resources.

  • Hydel Power: The stored rainwater or the river water in dams is generally prepared to fall from heights. The water with the help of turbine blades then produces electricity. This is termed as hydroelectricity. The famous hydel power projects of India are Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar and Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) projects.

  • Non-Conventional Sources of Energy: Fossil fuels which are falling short due to their increasing usage right now. There is also a huge possibility of conventional sources of energy of being getting exhausted. Another demerit of using conventional sources of energy is increasing environmental pollution. For that purpose, the requirement of non-conventional sources of energy is being realized now.

  • Some of the examples of non-conventional sources of energy are:

  • Solar Energy: Source is the sun of it.

  • Wind Energy: Atmospheric wind is the source of this energy.

  • Nuclear Energy: Energy stored in the nuclei of atoms is used.

  • Geothermal Energy: Heat energy acquired from the earth.


In conclusion, NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 - Mineral and Power Resources provide a comprehensive and informative exploration of the critical concepts related to minerals and power resources. This chapter offers valuable insights into the significance, distribution, and utilization of these resources, which play a vital role in shaping modern societies and economies. The solutions begin by introducing the concept of minerals and their importance in various industrial processes, construction, and daily life. Students learn about the classification of minerals based on their chemical composition and how they are formed in the Earth's crust. Moreover, NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 delve into the distribution of mineral resources in India and around the world. Students gain insights into the factors influencing the concentration and availability of minerals in different regions.

FAQs on Mineral and Power Resources Class 8 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 3 (Free PDF Download)

1. What do you mean by wind energy?

Wind energy is the energy that is obtained by the speed of moving wind. This source of energy is considered as an inexhaustible or renewable source of energy. Wind energy is obtained when the speed of moving wind rotates the windmill which is connected to a generator that converts the wind energy to electricity. Wind energy can be generally found in open spaces as the wind blows at high speed in these areas. Wind energy is a clean and pure form of energy.

2. What is biogas?

Biogas is the energy that is obtained from organic materials like dead plants, kitchen waste, cow dung, and other organic materials. These organic wastes are put in large containers or pits called biogas digesters and are decomposed by bacterial action. After certain days, The digester emits biogas which is a mixture of methane gas and carbon dioxide. Biogas is considered as an excellent fuel used for cooking. It produces a high amount of heat and light. Biogas is eco-friendly in nature, but producing this energy is challenging as well as costly.

3. Can I find these notes as a free PDF download?

Yes, these notes are often available as a free PDF download on various educational websites or platforms that offer CBSE study materials. You can access and download them for your convenience.

4. Are these notes suitable for Class 8 CBSE Geography? 

Yes, these notes are specifically designed for CBSE Class 8 Geography and align with the prescribed syllabus for Chapter 3 - Mineral and Power Resources.

5. How can these notes help me in my geography studies?

These notes serve as a valuable resource for your geography studies as they provide in-depth explanations, examples, and illustrations related to minerals and power resources. By studying these notes, you can gain a deeper understanding of these resources and their significance in various aspects of human life.