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Human-Environment Interactions Class 7 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 8 (Free PDF Download)

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Human-Environment Interactions - The Tropical and the Subtropical Region Class 7 Notes Geography Chapter 8 - PDF Download

Discover the rich tapestry of Human-Environment Interactions in the Tropical and Subtropical Regions with Class 7 Geography Chapter 8 Notes. These insightful notes delve into the dynamic relationship between humanity and its surroundings in these diverse climatic zones. Offering a comprehensive understanding of ecosystems, climates, and human adaptation, these notes unravel the intricacies of these regions. Accessible in PDF format, these resources provide an engaging exploration of geography, shedding light on the profound interaction between humans and the environment in tropical and subtropical landscapes.

Download CBSE Class 7 Geography Revision Notes 2023-24 PDF

Also, check CBSE Class 7 Geography revision notes for All chapters:

Access Class 7 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 8 - Human-Environment Interactions: The Tropical and The Subtropical Region

There are more than seven billion lives on Earth. All of them are parts of the complete ecosystem. The earth’s environment gives us our basic needs, and quite naturally, many of us have the same requirements as others for a living. These basic needs include food, cloth, and shelter. Therefore, despite our distinct appearance, characteristics, and cultures, we are all the same species. This is why human-environment interactions of the Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the planet are important for learning the various aspects of its wildlife, population, etc. In CBSE Class 7 Social Science Geography Chapter 8, you will be learning about these interactions in detail.

Life in the Amazon Basin 

  • From the map of the Amazon Basin, it is evident that the region lies very close to the planet's equator, between 10-degree North and 10-degree South. 
  • Due to its location, it's called the Equatorial region. 
  • The Amazon River flows through this region from the Western mountains to the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. 
  • The river has numerous tributaries. 
  • The Amazon Basin, formed by the Amazon River and its tributaries, covers large parts of Brazil, Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its hot climate characterizes climate 

The Climate in the Amazon Basin

  • Since the region lies directly on the Earth's equator, its climate comprises primarily hot and humid weather. 
  • The climate remains simultaneously hot and wet during the year due to its location and sun ray's distribution. 
  • The days and the nights on the Amazon Basin are equally hot and humid. 
  • Rainfall occurs nearly every day on the Amazon Basin. 
  • The days are extremely hot and humid in the region. 
  • The nights comprise lower levels of temperature but are highly humid.


Since the Amazon Basin receives plenty of rain all year round. It should not come as a surprise that a wide variety of trees grow in this region. These trees are collectively known as the rainforest of the Amazon Basin since rainfall is the main reason for the growth of these forests. Similarly, the Rainforests also house many tropical birds and animals and serve as their natural habitat. 

  • Since the Amazon Basin receives plenty of rainfall throughout the year, the forests in this region are characterized by their thick and dense foliage. 
  • The canopy of the trees in these rainforests is among the largest in the world. 
  • These forests' treetops (canopy) restrict sunlight from entering through them due to their vastly dense composition. 
  • These rainforests remain dark and gloomy because they receive less sunlight. 
  • The bases of the trees, i.e., the ground of the forests, are suitable for the growth of mosses since they are shade tolerant, stunted vegetation. 
  • Parasitic plants such as Orchids and Bromeliads also grow in these regions. 
  • The Rainforest at the Amazon Basin is especially known for its wide diverse fauna. 
  • These forests house various exotic tropical birds such as Toucans; with their oversized bills, Hummingbirds, Birds of paradise with their bright and colorful plumage. 
  • Various wild animals such as tapirs, crocodiles, pythons, snakes, and numerous insects and fish are also found in these Amazon rainforests. 

People of the Rainforests

  • The people who inhabit the lands of the Amazon Basin grow their food through farming after clearing out trees from the forest. The general role for men of the Amazon Basin is to hunt animals and fish from the rivers for consumption. 
  • Women in the Amazon Basin mostly take care of the crops they grow.
  • The primary crops and fruits they grow for consumption in the Amazon Basin include Tapioca, Pineapple, and sweet potatoes. 
  • Since hunting animals and fish has become difficult in recent years due to deforestation and water pollution, it is generally the women who take care of their households. and families by feeding them the vegetables they grow. 
  • "Slash and Burn" is the most prevailing farming method used in the region by its inhabitants to grow crops and vegetables. 
  • Staple foods of its inhabitants include manioc, cassava, queen ants, egg sacs, etc. 
  • Cash crops like coffee, maize, and cocoa are also cultivated and grown by the people of the Rainforests. Wood is used extensively by the inhabitants of the Amazon Basin. 
  • The people in this region use wood for several purposes, the most significant of which is to build houses.  
  • Some families of the Amazon Basin live in thatched, beehive-shaped houses, while others live in large apartment-like houses known as "Maloca." 
  • Over the past years, this region's development has been witnessed in terms of transportation, accessibility, etc. 
  • All parts of the Amazonian rainforest have been made accessible by the Trans Amazon highway since 1970. 
  • Several regions are further accessed through the aid of helicopters and aircraft. 
  • Indigenous people of the Amazon Basin have been pushed out and forced to settle in newer areas to sustain their lives through farming and hunting. 
  • Due to the rapid developmental activities in the Amazon Basin, however, gradual destruction of its forests has been observed. 
  • Therefore, the developmental activities have been destructive to nature and the environment of the Amazon Basin.

Life in the Ganga-Brahmaputra Basin

Similar to the Amazon Basin, the Ganga and Brahmaputra tributaries in the Indian subcontinent also form a basin called the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin. The basin's location faces year-round rainfall, which has significantly impacted the women, generally the population, and its characteristics. 

  • The Ganga-Brahmaputra basin is drained by rivers like Ghagra, the Son, Chambal, Gandak, Kosi and Brahmaputra tributaries. 
  • The characteristics of this basin are the plains of Ganga and Brahmaputra, the Himalayan foothills and mountains, along the Sunderbans delta. 
  • The region receives heavy rainfall, and the monsoon prevails almost throughout the year.
  • The rains occur mostly from mid-June to mid-September, while the summers in this region are hot, and due to the presence of sea breeze, there are cool winters. 
  • Many people do not inhabit the mountain area of the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin due to its steep slopes that make the terrain inhospitable. 
  • However, the plain area is ideal for human habitation and fertile soil, ideal for cultivation.  
  • The plains are, therefore, highly populated and agriculture is the main occupation of its people. 
  • The main crop cultivated in this area is paddy, in regions with higher levels of rainfall. 
  • Other crops grown in the GangaBrahmaputra basin include wheat, maize, sorghum, gram, and millets. 
  • Cash crops such as sugarcane and jute are also grown in several regions. 
  • Deciduous trees grow mostly on the plains of Ganga and Brahmaputra, teal, sal, peepal, and bamboo. 
  • Mangrove forests mainly cover the delta area of the region with trees like pine, deodar, and fir. 
  • The Ganga-Brahmaputra basin harbors wildlife with animals like elephants, tigers, deer, monkeys, etc. 
  • One-horned rhinoceros is found in the Brahmaputra plains, while Bengal tiger, alligator, and crocodiles are seen in the delta. 
  • Various carp fish are also found in the region, such as Catla, Rohu, and Hilsa.  
  • For the inhabitants of the area, fish and rice is their staple diet. 
  • Due to the highly populated plains of Ganga, various chemicals are discharged onto the river, polluting water bodies with industrial wastes. 
  • The Ganga-Brahmaputra basin is well developed with all four transportation ways, including airways, roadways, railways, and waterways, which are extremely important transportation methods.

Benefits of Using Vedantu’s Revision Notes for Class 7 Chapter 8

Vedantu's Class 7 Chapter 8 Revision Notes offer invaluable aid in comprehending Human-Environment Interactions in Tropical and Subtropical Regions. These concise notes simplify complex geographical concepts, fostering a deeper understanding of human-nature dynamics. With a focus on pivotal topics, these notes streamline learning, aiding in a comprehensive grasp of the subject. Here are few Benefits of using Vedantu’s Revision Notes for Class 7 Chapter 8: 

  • Provides quick, clear summaries of key concepts.

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The notes for CBSE Class 7 provide a clear grasp of key concepts in Social - Human-Environment Interactions. Students benefit from insights into the properties and characteristics of how humans interact with their environment, learning about the delicate balance in nature. The well-organized format supports efficient revision, aiding in better retention. Practical examples and real-life applications enrich the understanding of the subject. These notes are essential for building a strong foundation in understanding how we impact our environment and excelling academically. They've proven invaluable in helping students succeed in their studies, making the learning journey both insightful and impactful.

FAQs on Human-Environment Interactions Class 7 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 8 (Free PDF Download)

1. What are the types of questions that students can answer by referring to the NCERT Solutions for Chapter 8 of Class 7 Geography?

NCERT is known to provide all possible varieties of questions and answers that a student needs to learn and prepare for their exams. They will be well versed with questions like the multiple-choice type, the very short or one-word answers, the short answers and the long descriptive answers too. A student will be well prepared with the subject and gain confidence for attempting all kinds of questions if they refer to the NCERT solutions for Chapter 8 of Class 7 Geography available on Vedantu website and mobile app.

2. What is the climate of the Amazon Basin?

The Amazon Basin is the area that falls on the equatorial region of Earth. Now since it's in the middle directly it is known to experience hot and humid climates all throughout the year. This climate results from the direct sun rays making both days and nights equally warm, hot and humid. Apart from this, the basin receives rainfall every day of the year. So it can be said that the Amazon Basin has extreme climates of both heat and rainfall.

3. What do you mean by rainforests according to Chapter 8 of Class 7 Geography?

In Chapter 8 of Class 7 Geography, you will get to learn about the Amazon Basin that is quite famous. Now, this Amazon  Basin is known to receive huge amounts of rainfall every year. And such high amounts of rain undoubtedly leads to the growth of a huge number of trees thus making an entire forest. Now since this forest is entirely the result of rain, it is termed as rainforests. Rainforests are an important aspect of climate in general.

4. Name the basins found in India?

In Chapter 8 of Class 7 Social Science you will get to know about the Ganga- Brahmaputra Basin which is found in the Indian subcontinent. The Ganga and Brahmaputra are two main rivers that run through the Indian subcontinent. The tributaries of these two rivers come and accumulate in the foothills of the Himalayan region thereby forming a common space that is known as the Basin. There are various cities like Kolkata and Allahabad that run along the slopes of this basin and are heavily populated. To know more about basins students can download the revision notes for this chapter free of cost.

5. What is Slash and Burn according to Chapter 8 of Class 7 Geography?

Slash and Burn refer to the technique of cutting down trees extensively and clearing the land in order to cultivate other crops in that land. The farmers opt for this method in order to help the older farming land to regain its nutrients while the new land is being farmed. But if you dig deep into this concept you will understand how harmful this is for nature as it leads to deforestation thereby threatening nature to a huge extent.