CBSE Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 Notes - Environment

Environment Class 7 Notes Geography Chapter 1 - PDF Download

We are all surrounded by living and non-living things. Every single thing that is present around us can be a part of the environment. There are so many elements at play in the environment. Whether it is a tree or a car or a human being, all of them are part of the environment. The Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 can help the students understand a little bit more about the environment in the best way. Most of the physical, natural, as well as chemical forces also tend to fall under the environment.

Nature craves balance and it can be achieved by the interaction that happens between the biotic components of the environment with the abiotic components of the environment. The environment is divided into two parts, the Human Environment, and the Natural Environment.

Access Class 7 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 1 - Environment Notes in 30 Minutes part-1

Access Class 7 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 1 - Environment Notes in 30 Minutes


Environment is the surrounding we live in. It consists of both the biotic and the abiotic components. Our environment includes the mountain, rivers, lakes, animals, plants, people, etc.

Biotic Components: All the living organisms in our environment are said to be the biotic components. Example: Plants and animals.

Abiotic Components: All the non living organisms in the environment form the abiotic components. Example: Land and mountain.

Types of Environment

Our environment can be classified into two types:

Natural Environment: The natural environment consists of all the things occurring naturally like land, water, plants, air etc. The natural environment is further divided into different domains:

  • Lithosphere: The solid crust or the hard top layer of the earth that is made up of rocks and minerals and with a thin layer of soil. Eg: mountains, plateaus, highlands, etc.

  • Hydrosphere: Hydrosphere basically consists of all the water bodies on the surface of the planet earth. This includes the sea, rivers, lakes, etc.

  • Atmosphere: This thin layer or blanket of air that surrounds the earth is known as Atmosphere. This layer protects us from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun. This consists of a number of gases, dust and water vapour.

  • Biosphere: The biosphere of the earth includes living organisms present in our environment. All the plants and animals are a part of our biosphere. 

Human Environment: This is a type of environment where the human beings modify their surroundings as per their own requirements. The early human beings lived a very simple life and fulfilled their needs from the natural resources available around them. With time and development human needs started increasing, with this growing needs humans began to change and modify their environment around. For example: The wheel was invented, people started a barter system, trade and commerce started. 

Then came the time of various revolutions that changed the outlook of the environment as a whole. With the industrial revolution, people began setting up industries by cutting down forests. Urbanization began, people started clearing forests and started construction for human settlements. Transportation began to develop. There were various other developments too that changed the way of living of the humans and they started creating their own environment. We humans must learn the optimum utilisation of resources. 


An ecosystem is the interaction between all the living beings with their physical and chemical environment i.e their surroundings. Generally, they are dependent upon each other. It is a community or gathering of living life forms that live in and associate with one another in a particular environment. For example, tropical forests are environments composed of living creatures, such as trees, plants, bugs, and miniature living beings, which are inconsistent with other physical or substance segments.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Define the environment.

Ans: The surrounding we live in is composed of various living and nonliving components which makes our existence possible is known as the environment. The living components include plants and animals whereas the non-living components include the land, air, water etc.


2. Define the terms Biotic and Abiotic?

Ans: The term "biotic" is cast by the combination of two terms, "bio", which means life, and "ic", which means like. In this manner, the term implies life-like and is identified with all the living substances present in an ecosystem.

Plants, Animals, fisheries, and so forth comprise the biotic elements. The term abiotic alludes to all the nonliving elements present in an environment. Daylight, water, land all comprise the abiotic factors.

3. What are the different domains in the Natural Environment?

Ans: The different domains in the Natural Environment are:

  • Lithosphere (land)

  • Hydrosphere (water)

  • Atmosphere (air)

  • Biosphere (living elements)


4. Explain about Natural Environment?

Ans: The natural environment incorporates all living and nonliving things occurring naturally or free gifts of nature. The natural environment incorporates land, water, air, plants, and animals. This environment incorporates the connection of every living species, atmosphere, climate, and common assets that influence human existence.

5. Give judgments.

i. Man changes his environment.

Ans: Man changes his environment as per his day to day growing needs. This is done in order to satisfy his wants. For example: Forests are cut for developing townships for accommodating the growing population.


ii. Plants and animals rely upon one another.

Ans: Plants and animals are dependent on one another because plants are the producers and animals are the consumers. Plants give out oxygen, which is breathed in by people and people breathe out carbon dioxide, which helps plants in creating their food.

6. What is meant by ecosystem?

Ans: An Ecosystem is a community or gathering of living life forms that live in and associate with one another in a particular environment. For example, tropical forests are environments composed of living creatures, such as trees, plants, bugs, and miniature living beings, which are inconsistent with other physical or substance segments.

The ecosystem manages the basic environmental cycles, underpins life frameworks, and renders solidness. It is likewise answerable for the cycling of supplements among biotic and abiotic parts. The abiotic parts help in the amalgamation of natural segments that include the exchange of energy. The food chain, Ecological pyramids, and Food web are the important ecological concepts in the ecosystem.

Getting an Overview of The Environment

The environment can be defined as the people, place, nature, and things that tend to surround any particular living organism. The combination of man-made and natural resources and phenomena tend to create an environment for every single living being. The natural environment might refer to the different abiotic as well as biotic components that exist on the earth. However, the man-made phenomena would reveal all the interactions and the creations which tend to happen between different human beings. It is safe to say that all the creations made by nature as well as human beings tend to create a whole environment in the best way.

Get an Insight into Natural Environment

To define the natural environment, one has to know what comprises it. The natural environment consists of plants, animals, air, water, and land. It is important to know the layers of the environment which are described below.

  • Lithosphere: The lithosphere is known to be the hard top layer which is also called the crust. Made with minerals and rocks, Lithosphere is covered with a soil layer that is pretty thin. The surface of the lithosphere is pretty irregular and there are landforms present such as plants, plateaus, mountains, valleys and so much more. This layer provides the space for grasslands, forests, and agricultural lands too.

  • Hydrosphere: The water domain is called the Hydrosphere. There are different sources of water that are present in this domain. These include lakes, seas, rivers, oceans, ponds, and so much more. Water is extremely essential for living beings.

  • Atmosphere: The atmosphere is another component of the natural environment and it is characterized by a thin air layer that completely surrounds the earth. It is held there due to the forces of gravitation. The main function of the atmosphere is to protect the earth from harmful UV rays of the sun as well as heat.

  • Biosphere: The last and one of the most important components of the natural environment is the biosphere. It consists of all the plants as well as the animal kingdoms. This is basically a pretty narrow zone that interacts with the land, air, and water in order to support life.

Some Details About the Human Environment

In the chapter Our Environment Class 7, there is a specific mention of the Human Environment. This environment consists of the interactions of human beings with the natural environment and the modifications which take place due to these actions. Humans tend to have a habit of adapting themselves very easily to their surroundings. Hence, the needs of people became different from time to time. With the increase of the needs of human beings, the interactions with the environment also began to increase. Humans also learned to domesticate animals and grow crops in the best way. New technologies and inventions came into existence. All of that increased production as well. Not to mention that transportation became a lot faster. Also, there was a revolution of information which gave rise to a whole new human environment.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What is the Ecosystem?

Ans. The ecosystem is an enlarged community that comprises organisms life animals, plants, microbes, etc. that are situated in one particular location. There are several nutrient cycles that tend to link so many components of the physical and the living nature. Some of the examples of an ecosystem would include grassland, a rain forest, a mountain, a desert and so much more.

Q2. What are the Biotic Components?

Ans. According to The Environment Class 7 Notes, Biotic components comprise the living things that make up the environment such as plants and animal life.

Q3. What are Abiotic Components?

Ans. Abiotic components can be defined as those components of the environment which are of non-living, physical, and chemical nature. Some examples include air, water, wind, light, minerals, and glass.

Q4. What is the Difference Between the Natural and Human Environment?

Ans. The natural environment consists of all the natural forces such as air, water, land, animals, plants, and much more. The human environment consists of human interactions with the environment.

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