Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 7 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 6 [Free PDF Download]

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Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 7 Notes Geography Chapter 6 - PDF Download

The height of land and the type of vegetation are close related attributes. Any change in the climate causes changes to the natural vegetation of that area as the growth of vegetation is dependent on temperature, moisture, slope, and thickness of soil. These factors correspond to the type and thickness of natural vegetation from place to place.

  1. Forests: These grow where there is enough temperature and rainfall to support a tree cover. Accordingly, dense and open forests are grown.

  2. Grasslands: These grow in the region with moderate rain.

  3. Shrubs: Thorny shrubs and scrubs grow in the dry region.

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CBSE Class 7 Geography Chapter 6 Notes - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife part-1

Access Class 7 Geography Chapter 6 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Natural vegetation and wildlife refer to the animals and plants that coexist in the natural environment of a place, and they build up an important part of the earth’s biosphere. 

CBSE Class 7 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 focuses on the different types of grasslands, forests, and other ecosystems and their natural vegetation and wildlife. These flora and fauna types together constitute the rich natural resources of the earth.


An Overview

Natural vegetation depends totally on the climatic conditions of a place, especially temperatures and average moisture content of the air. It depends on different other variables such as:

  • The thickness of the soil in which the vegetation grows 

  • The slope of the land (and elevation from the sea level) 

Natural vegetation can be classified into the following categories:

1. Forests: Forests grow in places where the rainfall and the temperature are suitable to support the growth of the trees. Depending on such factors, open and dense forests grow.

2. Grasslands: These grow in places that receive moderate rainfall. 

3. Shrubs: Shrubs and thorny bushes grow in dry regions.


Forests 

Tropical Evergreen Forests

Tropical Evergreen Woodlands are moreover known as tropical rainforests.

  • They are thick forests and specifically appear in the regions near the equator or the places that are close to the tropics. 

  • Tropical regions are hot throughout the year, and they receive heavy rainfall. 

  • The trees in such places do not shed their leaves as the place never becomes dry. This is often why they are too known as evergreen since the trees here don't shed their clears out.

  • Thick canopies of the trees that are closely spaced do not allow any sunlight to enter inside the forests in the daytime.

  • Hardwood trees like ebony, rosewood, and mahogany are some of the trees grown in this region.


Tropical Deciduous Forests

  • Tropical Deciduous Timberlands are too known as rainstorm woodlands and are found basically in India, Central America, and Northern Australia.

  • Tropical deciduous forests experience seasonal changes. The trees in this locale shed their clears out in dry seasons so that they can preserve water

  • Some of the hardwood trees found in these places are teak, sal, Sheesham, and neem. These trees are used in making construction and transport materials and furniture. 

  • Few animals found in this place are elephants, monkeys, langurs, lions, and tigers.


Temperate Evergreen Forest

  • Temperate evergreen forests are present in the coastal region of the mid-latitude.

  • These forests are very common in the eastern margins of our continents. They are found in southeast Brazil, South China, and the southeast USA. 

  • Both softwood and hardwood trees are found here. Some of them are eucalyptus, pine, and oak, etc.


Temperate Deciduous Forests

  • Temperate deciduous forests are the forests that are generally found in higher latitudes. They are found in China, northern parts of the USA, New Zealand, the coastal European region, and Chile.

  • The trees here shed leaves only in the dry seasons. Some of the trees here are beech, ash, oak, etc. 

  • Animals and birds found in temperate deciduous forests are fox, deer, wolves, monals, and pheasants.


Mediterranean Vegetation

  • The southwest and west margins of our continents are fully covered with Mediterranean vegetation. 

  • Mediterranean vegetation is generally found in places like Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean in Europe. The same vegetation is in other places like California, which is in the USA, southwestern part of South America, southwest Africa, and southwestern part of Australia.

  • Citrus fruits like figs, oranges, grapes, and olives are cultivated in Mediterranean places.


Coniferous Forests

  • Coniferous forests are generally composed of scale leaves, trees, or the trees that look like needle-leaves. 

  • Coniferous forests are found in regions that have moderate annual precipitation and long winters. The coniferous forest in northern Europe is known as boreal forest or taiga. 

  • Coniferous forests cover mountains, and some of their trees are firs, larches, spruces, and pines. All the trees here are similar in their shape and often form a uniform layer of herbs and low scrubs beneath. 

  • Some of the trees that cover coniferous forests are lichens, mosses, liverworts. 

  • The acidic soil of the coniferous forests is known as podzols. They have a humus layer that is known as more. The soil is low in organic material, mineral content, and invertebrates.

  • Some of the common inhabitants of coniferous forests are insects, flies, and mosquitoes.

  • Some of the birds found in this region are crossbills, woodpeckers, warblers, owls, hawks, grouse, waxwings, kinglets.

  • Mammals found are wolves, lynx, reindeer, moose, martens, voles, and squirrels.


Grassland 

Tropical Grasslands

  • The areas of less annual vegetation are dominated by grasses called Themeda triandra and Arundinella setosa. Tropical grasslands are referred to as savanna that is a form of vegetation that denotes a continuous stratum that is interrupted by shrubs and trees. 

  • Grasslands are climax vegetations that are found only in places of high latitudes that are above the formation of the pine forests. All the other types of grasslands cover a vast area and are man-made due to deforestation. 

  • They perform an unsound form of gazing, agriculture, and burning. The banks of the forests are opened, and their gaps are closed in a year with the disturbance of climax vegetation. 

  • Tropical grasslands are also found on either part of the equator, and they extend to the tropics. 

  • This sort of vegetation develops in zones that have a moo to direct sum of precipitation. The grasses of the tropical prairie are tall, and their statues are 3 to 4 meters

A few of the common creatures found here are panthers, deer, giraffes, elephants, and zebras.


Temperate Grasslands

  • Temperate grasslands are terrestrial biomes as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. The predominant vegetation of this place consists of scrubs and grasses.

  • The climate here is temperate, and it ranges from semi-humid to semi-arid. The habitat in the temperate grasslands differs from that of the tropical grasslands in their annual temperature and with the different species found here. 

  • The habitats in North America are known as prairie, and those in South America are known as pampas. In South Africa, they are known as veld, and in Asia, they are called steppe. These regions do not have many trees except for the gallery forests or riparian forests, which are associated with rivers and streams.

  • Shortgrass or steppes are the short grasslands that are found in semi-arid climates. Pastures and heaths are low shrublands where the forest growths are hindered by human activities and not climate. 

  • Tall grasslands receive moderate rainfall, and they have rich soil that makes them available for agriculture.

  • Hence, grasses here are mainly short but nutritious and are mainly located in the interiors. 

  • Some of the animals in the temperate grasslands are bison, wild buffaloes, and antelopes.


Thorny Bushes

  • Thorny bushes are found in dry areas like deserts. Tropical deserts are found in the western part of the continent. The vegetation here is scarce due to scorching heat and scanty rain.

  • In the polar region, the vegetation is very limited. Few of the scrubs grown in the polar region are lichens and mosses. It grows only during the summertime when the polar region receives slanting rays of the sun. In winters the vegetation is impossible due to the snowfall. This vegetation is also known as Tundra.

  • Animals here have thick furs that help them to fight the harsh climate. Some of them are polar bears, arctic owls, snow foxes, etc.


Important Questions and Answers.

1. Give an account of wildlife and natural vegetation found in the Polar Regions.

Ans

  • The growth of natural vegetation in the polar region is very limited due to its extremely cold weather. 

  • Only a few shrubs are found in the region during the short summer when the place gets slanting rays of the sun. 

  • Few of the shrubs are lichens and mosses. The vegetation is called tundra vegetation. This type of vegetation is found mainly in the polar areas of Asia, Europe, and the Northern part of America. 

  • The animals here have an extra layer of skin that protects them from harsh climatic conditions. Few animals are seals, polar bears, etc.


2. Mention the important features of the Tropical Evergreen Forests.

Ans: Tropical Evergreen Forest is also known as evergreen forests. The major features of the tropical evergreen forests are: 

  • The forests are extremely dense, and as a result, thick canopies are developed that do not allow sunlight to enter inside the forests. 

  • The trees in the tropical evergreen region do not shed their leaves as there is no dry season in the region. As a result, the forest remains evergreen. 

  • This region remains hot and receives rain throughout the year. 

  • Hardwood trees like ebony, rosewood, and mahogany grow here.


3. Describe the various types of grasslands.

Ans: 

  • Tropical Grasslands: Tropical grasslands grow in areas that have a low to moderate amount of rainfall. The grasses in this region grow to a long height of about 3 to 4 meters. An evident example of tropical grassland is the Savannah grassland of Africa. Animals found here are zebras, deer, giraffes, etc.

  • Temperate Grasslands: These are mostly found in the region of mid-latitude zones as well as in interiors of the continents. Grasses are usually nutritious and short here. The most common animals are bison and antelopes.

  • Thorny Bushes: These are found in dry deserts. They are mostly located on western margins and have scarce vegetation.


4. What can we surmise from the observation and experiences of Salima?

Ans: After having a close look at Salima’s observation, we can say that land and height have a close relationship that reflects in the different types of vegetation.

  • It is seen that there is a climatic change in each region depending on the increase in their height.

  • Natural vegetation changes with the change in the climate.

  • The growth of all the trees and shrubs depends fully on the type of vegetation they are growing in and also the moisture and the temperature.

  • Vegetation also depends on various other factors, such as the thickness of soil and the slope.


5. Mention two measures that can be used to conserve forests?

Ans: The following methods can be used to conserve forest:

Planned and regulated cutting of trees: one of the important reasons for deforestation is the felling of trees. Plenty of trees are cut down for various purposes and uses. Although they are meant to be perennial sources, they are exploited when cut down in huge numbers. 

Controlling forest fires: forest fires are very common in dense forest areas, and they are very difficult to control. To save the forest from the fire, we need to adopt new techniques that involve fighting with the fire.


6. Give reasons for the following statements.

a. “Trees in the tropical deciduous forest shed their leaves in the dry season.” 

Reason: Tropical deciduous forests experience seasonal changes that help the trees to shed their leaves to save water during the dry seasons. They are largely in parts of India, America, and Africa. 

b. “The thickness and type of vegetation changes with the place.”

Reason: It is true that the thickness and type of vegetation change from place to place due to the change in landform, climate conditions, moisture, and temperature. Various types of animals and plants can survive in different vegetation areas.

FAQs on Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Class 7 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 6 [Free PDF Download]

1. On Which Factors Does the Growth of Vegetation Mostly Depend?

Ans: The growth of natural vegetation majorly depends on the following factors: temperature, moisture, slope, and thickness of soil.

2. Give Reasons to the Following:

  1. Why do the Animals in the Polar Region have Thick Fur and Skin?

  2. Why do the Leaves of Tropical Deciduous Trees Shed Away in the Dry Season?

  3. Why Does the Thickness and Type of Vegetation Change From Place to Place?

Ans: A. Animals in the polar region possess thick fur and skin, to protect themselves from the extremely cold climatic conditions. Due to the cold climate, this region suffers from limited natural vegetation.


B. Tropical deciduous forests are found in major parts of India, Northern part of Australia and America. These areas experience seasonal changes, and thus the tropical deciduous trees shed their leaves in the dry season for saving water.


C. The thickness and type of vegetation changes from place to place, because of the change in climatic condition, landform, soil, temperature, and moisture. Depending on these factors, different types of plants and animals can survive in different types of vegetation.

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