The diabetes mellitus is caused by A. Hypersecretion of insulin B. Hyposecretion of insulin C. Hyposecretion of ADH D. Hypersecretion of ADH
Hint: Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood glucose level rises. It occurs due to less secretion of a hormone which can reduce blood sugar levels by promoting glycogen synthesis.
Complete answer: The organ called pancreas has some unique and specialized group of cells called the Islets of Langerhans. There, two principal types of cells are found: α cells and β cells. The β cells synthesize and secrete insulin hormone. Insulin works to reduce blood sugar levels by directing them to the hepatocytes. In hepatocytes (liver cells) the glucose can be stored in the form of a polymer – glycogen.
Additional information: There are different types of diabetes: 1. Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells of the pancreas, where insulin is produced. It’s still unclear what causes this attack. About 10% of people with diabetes have this type of problem. 2. Type 2 diabetes happens when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar level increases in your blood. 3. Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. 4. Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar level during pregnancy. Insulin-blocking hormones made by the placenta cause this type of diabetes.
So, the correct option is B. Hyposecretion of insulin
Note: Hypersecretion of insulin leads to a situation called hyperinsulinemia when the insulin levels are higher than usual. It deprives the person of the good effects of insulin. ADH is an antidiuretic hormone also known as arginine vasopressin. It helps regulate water retention and also controls blood pressure.