Name the bacteria that act as a natural genetic engineer.
Hint: Genetic engineering includes many advanced techniques such as recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, DNA fingerprinting and many more.
Complete Answer: - The bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens contains a plasmid known as Ti plasmid. The plasmid is an extrachromosomal self-replicating genetic material which can be used as vectors in the process such as Recombinant DNA technology. - The Ti plasmid that is tumour inducing plasmid to induce overproduction of growth factors in the host cells that leads to cell proliferation & tumour formation. - This bacterium helps in recognizing the chemical signals and helps in interaction with suitable root cells of the plants. - Then it transfers its plasmid into the plant host cell. This delivery requires the assistance of several viral proteins. The t-DNA is transferred and stably integrated into the host chromosome which laterwards leads in tumour development in the host.
E.coli is used as a vector. But, the natural bacterial engineer is Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Note: The Gram-negative soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens can genetically engineered plants in nature. As a consequence of the expression of the transferred agro bacterial genes in plant cells, tumours called crown galls develop at the injection sites.