Interferons are synthesized in response to (a)Mycoplasma (b)Bacteria (c)Viruses (d)Fungi
Hint: These are infectious agents nearly the size of sub microscopes that replicate inside living cells of any organism. It infects all types of organisms from animals to microorganisms. In 1957 interferons were discovered by British Alick Isaacs and Swiss Jean Lindenmann.
Complete answer: Interferons are mostly secreted by virus infected cells to protect the adjacent cell from viral infection. Interferons are from the family of cytokines or protein hormones and these molecules are used for triggering the immune system’s protective defense mechanisms as they can communicate cell to cell and eradicate pathogens. Interferons interfere with the replication of viruses thus they are also commonly known as antiviral agents. They protect the cells from viral infections and are signaling proteins that produce a response to pathogens like viruses and tumors. It does not directly inhibit the virus’s multiplication but causes the nearby cells to increase their antiviral defense mechanisms so the virus doesn’t replicate in them. This provides innate immunity to the host body. In the 1970s a Research revealed that these substances could even suppress the growth of cancers in some laboratory animals, but it had serious side effects like fever, fatigue, and reduction in the production of blood cells by the bone marrow. Interferons also have other functions like they inhibit B-lymphocyte or B-cell activation and enhance T- lymphocyte (T-cell) activity. So, the correct answer is ‘viruses’.
Note: The nonspecific defense mechanisms that involve barriers that keep harmful materials from entering your body, they come into play immediately or within a few hours and are known as innate immunity. These include immune system cells against foreigh cells, cough reflex, enzymes in tears and skin oils, and chemicals in the blood.