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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Economics Chapter 6 - Rural Development

Last updated date: 18th Jul 2024
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Class 11 NCERT Solutions Indian Economic Development - Chapter 6 - Free PDF Download

Class 11 Economics Chapter 6 Solutions available on Vedantu, will help the students to get a good score in their exams. Chapter 6 Economics Class 11, deals with rural development which is a very relevant topic in today’s time and has to be understood well by the students. The Rural Development Class 11 NCERT Solutions would help the students understand how to answer the questions better. They can download the PDF and refer to the solutions as per their convenience. By studying these NCERT Solutions students will be able to understand how to answer the questions correctly.


NCERT Solutions for Class 11


Class 11 Economics

Subject Part:

Class 11 Economics - Indian Economic Development

Chapter Name:

Chapter 6 - Rural Development


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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Indian Economic Development Chapter 6 Rural Development

1. What do you mean by rural development? Bring out the key issues in rural development.

Ans: The majority of India's population lives in rural areas. At the same time, the communities of these regions are prone as well as hotbeds of poverty, hunger, and starvation. As a result, rural development must be prioritized to expedite a country's growth and development. The acts and initiatives performed for the social and economic development of rural or backward areas are referred to as rural development. The following are the most important issues in rural development:

1. Human Capital Formation: Quality human capital is in short supply in rural areas. As a result, rural development programs should prioritize human resource development by investing in education, technical skill development through on-the-job training, and health care, among other things.

2. Creation of Productive Resources: Productive resources contribute to the creation of job chances. Agriculture is the primary source of income in rural areas, but it is plagued by low productivity, a lack of infrastructure, and hidden unemployment. As a result, rural development must focus on the establishment of alternate forms of employment. The development of productive resources relieves the overburdening of the agricultural sector, consequently enhancing rural people's productivity and income.

3. Infrastructure Development in Rural Areas: Infrastructure development is a critical issue at the micro-level. It provides a support structure for all economic production activities, without which economic growth and social progress are impossible. Rural infrastructure development includes the establishment of banks, credit societies, power, transportation, irrigation, marketplaces, and agricultural research centers, among other things.

4. Land reforms: In the rural areas, land reforms, as well as technical changes, must be implemented. These allow for the application of current techniques and processes, increasing agricultural production and total output volume. Furthermore, land reforms result in more efficient and optimal land usage, allowing for large-scale production.

5. Poverty: Poverty is a major contributor to rural underdevelopment. Poverty is not a problem in and of itself; rather, it causes a slew of other issues such as unemployment, a lack of human capital, underdevelopment and backwardness, inequality, and so on. The development of income-earning assets is a crucial step to take to combat poverty.

2. Discuss the importance of credit in rural development.

Ans: The two most important criteria for rural development are finance and credit. Low income in rural areas frequently leads to a low rate of savings. It is extremely difficult for farmers to boost their production by investing in their farmland. Furthermore, the few banks that exist in rural areas prefer to lend to farmers with significant landholdings. Due to the difficulty in obtaining credit from banks, small and marginal farmers are easy targets for money lenders. The following points emphasize the relevance of credit in rural development:

1. Credit aids farmers in commercializing their operations. To put it another way, commercial farming necessitates the use of credit. Because small and marginal farmers produce mainly for their livelihood, they do not earn enough surplus to reinvest in their fields, resulting in land degradation.

2. Second, because crops have a long gestation period between sowing and harvesting, farmers are granted credit for fulfilling their initial agricultural input needs, such as seeds and fertilizers.

3. Credit allows farmers to break free from the cycle of poverty. Farmers require finances to meet both general and specific requirements. Creativity will be used to meet these requirements.

3. Explain the role of micro-credit in meeting the credit requirements of the poor.

Ans: Microcredit is a term used to describe credit and other financial services provided to the needy through Self Help Groups (SHGs) and non-government organizations. By instilling saving habits among rural households, Self Help Groups play a critical role in satisfying the credit needs of the poor. Many farmers' funds are pooled together to cover the financial needs of the SHGs' needy members. The banks have been linked to the members of these groups. In other words, SHGs allow economically disadvantaged individuals to develop strength by joining a group. SHG financing also lowers transaction costs for both lenders and borrowers. NABARD, the National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development, is a prominent player in providing lending at extremely low rates. Currently, more than seven lakh SHGs are working in rural areas. Because of its informal credit delivery method and minimal legal requirements, SHGs programs are gaining popularity among small and marginal borrowers.

4. Explain the steps taken by the government in developing rural markets.

Ans: The Indian government has taken several initiatives to create rural markets, including:

1. Regulated Markets: The government devised the notion of a regulated market, in which a market committee oversees goods sales and purchases. Farmers, government agents, and traders make up the Market Committee. With adequate scales and weights, this method instills greater openness in the marketing system. These committees ensure that farmers and consumers are paid a fair price for their products.

2. Infrastructure Development: The current infrastructure is insufficient to fulfill the farmers' increasing expectations. The Indian government built cold storage facilities and warehouses to assist farmers in selling their produce at a profit. In addition, railways provide farmers with subsidized transportation. This allows farmers to sell their produce in metropolitan areas, where they may make a lot of money.

3. Cooperative Agricultural Marketing Societies: The government has also begun cooperative marketing, through which farmers may obtain fair pricing. This is owing to the farmers' increased bargaining power as a result of the market's collective selling.

4. Minimum Support Price Policy: A minimum legislated price that a farmer may charge in exchange for his products is known as the Minimum Support Price (MSP). This allows them to sell their items at a higher price on the open market. Farmers are protected by the MSP because it is the lowest price they can receive in the event of a price drop.

5. Why is agricultural diversification essential for sustainable livelihoods?

Ans: Agricultural diversification entails a movement in crop production and a shift in agricultural labor to allied industries such as cattle, poultry, and fisheries, as well as the nonagricultural sector. To increase income and explore new paths of sustainable existence, a move from crop farming to non-farm employment is required. The following points can be used to explain the importance of agricultural diversification:

1. The monsoon is responsible for a large amount of Indian agriculture, making it a risky proposition to rely only on it. As a result, diversification is essential to allow farmers to generate money from non-traditional sources.

2. Agricultural work prospects abound throughout the Kharif season. If we talk about the farmers, they are unable to find meaningful employment during the Rabi season due to a lack of irrigation infrastructure. As a result, during the Rabi season, there is a need for diversity.

3. Agriculture, which is already overburdened, will not be able to create any more jobs. As a result, non-farm sectors should be expanded in rural regions to create job possibilities, diverting labor away from the already overburdened agricultural sector.

4. There are various segments in the non-farm economy that have dynamic links. Such ties help a country's economy flourish at a healthy pace.

6. Critically evaluate the role of the rural banking system in the process of rural development in India.

Ans: The concept of social banking was born with the nationalization of commercial banks in 1969. It entails providing institutional financing at a reasonable interest rate. In the sphere of rural financing, the National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD) has achieved great progress. Institutional credit has undoubtedly emancipated farmers from the clutches of money lenders and Mahajan. Institutional credit, on the other hand, does not come without flaws. Rural or institutional credit has always been linked to some form of security or collateral. Therefore, most of the farmers are unable to get credit. Furthermore, commercial banks failed to encourage farmers to practice thrift. Furthermore, the government's leniency in collecting taxes was another impediment in rural banking. As a result, the farmers began to believe that they would not be able to repay the money they had borrowed. This raised the rate of defaulters, making rural banks financially unviable.

7. What do you mean by agricultural marketing?

Ans: Agricultural marketing encompasses all of the procedures that occur between the harvesting of the crops and the final sale of the products by the farmers. These procedures entail: 

a) gathering the product after it has been harvested.

b) processing the product

c) grading it according to various quality standards

d) packing the goods

e) storing the product for later use; and

f) selling the product at a profit.

To put it another way, it doesn't just relate to the farmers' act of bringing their goods to market for sale. However, it also encompasses all efforts that assist farmers in obtaining the highest possible price for their crop.

8. Mention some obstacles that hinder the mechanism of agricultural marketing.

Ans: Agricultural marketing encompasses more than just the farmers' act of bringing their goods to market for sale. However, it also encompasses all efforts that assist farmers in obtaining the highest possible price for their crop. The following are some of the roadblocks to the agricultural marketing mechanism:

  • Farmers are prone to faulty weighing practices and account misuse, as well as being under-informed about market prices and conditions.

  • Farmers are obliged to sell their food at cheaper rates due to their ignorance, and they lack access to suitable storage facilities to store their produce for future sale at higher prices.

9. What are the alternative channels available for agricultural marketing? Give some examples.

Ans: Small and marginal farmers were exploited when they sold their products through intermediaries and thus didn’t receive a fair price for their crops. In this situation, an alternative marketing channel was required. Farmers can sell their products directly to customers through this channel, resulting in a higher price and thus more attractive profits. Apni Mandi in Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan, Hadapsar Mandi in Pune, Rythu Bazars in Andhra Pradesh, and Uzhavar Sandies in Tamil Nadu are some examples of alternative agricultural marketing. The contract of direct sales between farmers and national and international enterprises is another potential channel for agricultural marketing.

Farmers receive upfront payments from these companies in exchange for supplying products at predetermined rates. Small and marginal farmers benefit from these alternative agricultural channels because they increase their income while lowering their pricing risk.

10. Distinguish between 'Green Revolution' and 'Golden Revolution.

Ans :  The difference between Green Revolution and Golden Revolution is given below:

Green Revolution

Golden Revolution

Rice and wheat production increased as a result of the usage of HYV seeds, greater fertilizer use, and improved irrigation systems. This revolution led to the growth in food grain production.

It refers to the rapid increase in the output of horticulture crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, and other plants.

It resulted in a rise in production, particularly of rice and wheat.

It resulted in a surge in the production of fruits, vegetables, flowers, aromatic plants, spices, and other products.

India became self-sufficient in wheat and rice production because of this revolution.

India became a world leader because of this revolution in mangoes, bananas, coconut, and spices as a result of this revolution.

11. Do you think the various measures taken by the government to improve agricultural marketing are sufficient? Discuss.

Ans: The Indian government has taken several steps to improve agricultural marketing, including market regulation, infrastructure development, such as the construction of cold storage facilities, warehouses, roads, railways, and cooperative agricultural marketing societies, as well as the implementation of a minimum support price policy. Despite the government's efforts to improve agricultural marketing, private parties such as money lenders, intermediaries, politicians, and wealthy farmers continue to dominate the market. The following are some of the other impediments to the agricultural marketing mechanism:

  • Farmers are subject to faulty weighing practices and account misuse.

  • Farmers are frequently in the dark about market prices and conditions. Farmers are obliged to sell their stuff at lesser prices due to their ignorance.

  • Farmers do not have access to enough storage facilities to store their produce to sell it at a higher price in the future.

  • Farmers are unable to obtain agricultural loans, leaving them vulnerable to moneylenders.

12. Explain the role of non-farm employment in promoting rural diversification.

Ans: Non-farm work is critical for increasing income and investigating alternate sources of sustainable existence beyond agriculture. The importance of non-farm employment opportunities in encouraging rural diversification is as follows:

1. The monsoon is responsible for a large amount of Indian agriculture, making it a risky proposition to rely only on it. As a result, non-farm employment options must be investigated for farmers to earn money from non-farm occupations. By eliminating disguised unemployment, it will alleviate the overburdening of agriculture.

2. Agricultural work prospects abound throughout the Kharif season. Farmers are unable to find meaningful employment during the Rabi season due to a lack of irrigation infrastructure. As a result, the lack of opportunities in agriculture should be compensated for in non-agricultural areas.

3. Agriculture, which is already overburdened, will be unable to provide additional job possibilities for farmers. As a result, non-farm sectors should be expanded in rural regions to create job possibilities, diverting labor away from the already overburdened agricultural sector.

4. There are various areas in the non-farming economy that have dynamic links. Rural communities benefit from such connections because they promote healthy growth.

5. In comparison to farming, the non-farm sector gives employment opportunities throughout the year. As a result, it aids in the eradication of poverty in rural areas.

13. Bring out the importance of animal husbandry, fisheries, and horticulture as a source of diversification.


Importance for animal husbandry: Animal husbandry is India's most major non-farm occupation. Livestock farming is another name for it. Poultry, cattle, and goats/sheep are the mainstays of Indian animal farming. To supplement their income, the majority of rural families engage in both livestock and agricultural production. Livestock farming, it can be stated, gives a sustainable livelihood to people in semi-arid and arid regions where farming is difficult. Furthermore, compared to crop production, livestock husbandry requires less capital investment. Furthermore, livestock husbandry is a significant source of income for rural women. Animal husbandry is currently the most major source of alternative employment, with almost 70 million small and marginal farmers employed. Aside from creating jobs, livestock farming has resulted in increased production of milk, eggs, meat, wool, and other by-products, hence improving the quality and nutritional value of the consumption bundle.

Importance of Fisheries: In coastal states like Kerala, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu, 'fisheries' are a major source of income. In India, the fishing community is reliant on both inland and coastal water bodies. Rivers, lakes, ponds, as well as streams are examples of inland sources, while seas and oceans are examples of marine sources. State governments' increased efforts have attracted funding to this industry, boosting productivity. Even though this industry employs a large number of people, it only contributes 1.4 percent of India's overall GDP.

Importance of Horticulture: Horticulture is becoming a significant source of income in rural areas. Fruits, vegetables, medicinal as well as aromatic plants, and flowers are all examples of horticultural crops. India is currently the world's second greatest producer of fruits and vegetables, including mangoes, bananas, coconuts, cashew nuts, and a wide range of other species. Families that work in the horticultural industry have seen a significant increase in their earnings. Small and marginal farmers have been less vulnerable as horticulture production has increased.

14. 'Information technology plays a very significant role in achieving sustainable development and food security - comment.

Ans: To achieve sustainable development and food security, information technology (IT) plays a critical role. IT allows for the provision and storage of data on past and future conditions, which may be used during the informed policy decisions as well as the implementation of various remedial measures. Weather conditions, for example, can be predicted using technology. Preventive steps can be implemented to minimize or mitigate the impact of food insecurity if there is a risk of crop failure, for example. Information technology makes it easier to store and access data about emerging technologies, weather and soil conditions for growing diverse crops, and other topics, making it easier to make decisions about production and productivity. Farmers can now contact Kisan Call Centers and various websites for vital information on how to boost farm productivity and the quality of farm inputs, seeds, fertilizers, and other sophisticated approaches. It serves as a resource for locating professionals in the fields of food security and sustainable development. The IT sector also creates jobs in underdeveloped areas by creating 'info kiosks' (i.e. PCs with the internet, scanners, etc.).

15. What is organic farming and how does it promote sustainable development?

Ans: Organic farming is a type of farming that maintains and improves the natural balance of the environment. To put it another way, this farming system is based on the utilization of organic inputs for cultivation. Chemical fertilizers, poisonous insecticides, and other harmful chemicals are used in traditional farming, etc., all of which have a significant negative impact on the environment. As a result, this sort of farming is used to create toxin-free food for consumers while preserving the fertility of the environment soil, as well as helping to maintain ecological harmony. This form of farming is environmentally beneficial for economic development that is long-term

16. Identify the benefits and limitations of organic farming.

Ans: When opposed to conventional farming, organic farming provides several distinct advantages. The following are some of the benefits of organic farming:

1. Avoids the Use of Chemicals: Organic farming does not use synthetic chemicals, unlike conventional farming. Chemical fertilizers leach into the groundwater, increasing the nitrate concentration. This is hazardous to one's health and pollutes the environment. As a result, organic farming is an environmentally favorable farming approach.

2. Preserves Soil Fertility: The use of chemical fertilizers causes soil fertility to erode. Chemical fertilizers are not used in organic farming.

3. Healthier Food: Compared to conventionally cultivated crops, organically grown foods have a higher nutritional value. Furthermore, even at a premium price, organic farming is in strong demand.

4. Low-Cost Technology for Small and Marginal Farmers: Small and marginal farmers make up the majority of the farming population. Organic farming provides these small and marginal farmers with a low-cost farming method.

5. Increases Income from Exports: There is a large international demand for organic crops, thus it creates more income from exports.

Organic Farming's Limitations: Despite the benefits listed above, organic farming has the following drawbacks:

1. Organic farming produces fewer fruits and vegetables than traditional farming. As a result, organic farming productivity is lower than conventional farming productivity.

2. Organic farming's popularity is determined by farmers' awareness of and desire to adopt this technique. Farmers lack the motivation to embrace organic farming techniques due to poor productivity.

3. Inadequate infrastructure and marketing issues are two important issues that must be solved to promote organic farming.

17. Enlist some problems faced by farmers during the initial years of organic farming.

Ans: Organic farming yields are lower than modern agricultural farming yields in the early years. As a result, large-scale production proved problematic for the farmers. This technique was also not financially viable for small and marginal employees because of the poor yield per hectare. Organically grown items have a shorter shelf life and are perishable rapidly. Furthermore, with Organic Farming, the choice of output during the off-season is somewhat limited. Despite these flaws in the early years, India has developed a competitive edge in organic farming thanks to labor-intensive practices. As a result of the large supply of labor, Organic Farming became popular in India. The demand for organic farm-produced items is increasing in metro centers as people become more aware of the benefits of organic farm-produced products.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Indian Economic Development Chapter 6 Rural Development

Rural Development 

Rural development refers to a plan of action that aims to bring about upliftment in terms of the economic and social aspects in the rural regions. The main issues that the term deals with include Human capital formation, infrastructure development, productive resource development, alleviation of poverty, and bringing about reforms in the rural regions. The chapter also deals with rural credit and how important credit is for the farmers in the rural regions. The credit may be in short-term, medium-term, or long-term credit. The credit may come from either institutional or non-institutional sources. 


Agricultural Marketing 

Agricultural activities would include all forms of activities that would help farmers earn the maximum amount from their produce. Agricultural marketing aims to bring about development in the marketing sector through the improvement of storage transport and other things. There have been various measures in India aiming for regulated markets, providing warehouse facilities, making cooperative agricultural societies, subsidizing transport, disseminate information, and bringing about an MSP or maximum selling price. 


Organic Farming 

Organic farming aims to bring about sustainable development by replacing the use of chemicals with a more organic method of cultivation. This method does not use any non-renewable resources and helps in the improvement of the environment. Through organic farming, soil fertility can be improved, and healthier food can be produced, which is free from the influence of fertilizers and pesticides. The technology, however, that is required for organic farming along with the more expensive seeds, makes it difficult for the farmers to afford this method. However, this method is crucial to bring about sustainable development and improve the quality of food. 


Golden Revolution and Operation Flood 

The immense growth in the cultivation of horticulture crops that include vegetables, fruits, and other plantation crops as well as the growth in the production of honey is termed the golden revolution. Due to the different climatic and soil conditions found in the different parts of the country, India has adopted various horticultural crops that play an essential role in providing nutrition, employment, and income. Today India has emerged as a leading producer of fruits, mango, bananas, and other species of vegetables and fruits. This period lasted between 1991-2003. Another similar growth was also experienced in the dairy sector, which is termed operation flood. The system included farmers pooling in their milk production and the same being graded, processed, and marketed to the urban regions by means of cooperatives. Through this system, the farmers were assured of a fair price for their produce and Gujrat emerged as a success story in this milk production business. 


Why Choose Vedantu? 

The NCERT Solutions of Class 11 Economics Chapter 6 provided by Vedantu are available in PDF format, and the answers are precise and relevant. The Class 11 Economics Rural Development Solutions cover the answers to all the questions in the textbook. They would help the students get a good grip on the concepts covered in the chapter which is essential to get good marks in the exams. The Economics Class 11 Chapter 6 would help the students gain a great understanding of the concepts of Rural Development and help them in knowing the question pattern, marks weightage, and the important sub-topics. The solutions are compiled by expert teachers with years of experience and in strict adherence to the CBSE guidelines. The answers are provided in a very understandable step by step manner, which would help the students to learn the chapter easily. 


Solved Examples

1. Explain Rural Development.

Answer: Rural development is a broad term that refers to the actions taken to uplift the rural regions socially and economically.

FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Economics Chapter 6 - Rural Development

1. Evaluate the banking system in rural development of India critically.

The concept of social banking came into being after the commercial banks were nationalized in 1969. The concept of social banking implies that institutional credit must be extended at a moderate rate of interest and the National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development or NABARD has made essential changes to bring about progress in Rural Development. With the help of institutional credit, farmers have finally been freed of the traps of money lenders. However, still, the implementation of rural credit has some flaws which keep creating difficulties for farmers. Institutional credit is tied with collaterals and security, which is why a large number of farmers do not have access to credit facilities. 

2. Name and briefly describe the steps that the government has taken for the development of rural banking systems. 

There are various ways by which the Indian government tries to develop rural banking systems which include the development of regulated markets that monitor the purchase and sale of various agricultural products. The market committee consists of various members such as traders, government agents, and farmers. The present infrastructure is insufficient to meet the increasing demands that the farmers have and the cold storages that the government provides help the farmers to see their products at the required time and reasonable prices. Cooperative marketing societies have also been developed by farmers by which they would get fair prices for what they produce. The MSP policy also ensures that farmers get a minimum price for their produce, and this would help the farmers sell their products in the open market at a fair price.

3. Why is rural development necessary for Class 11 Chapter 6?

Rural development is necessary because it provides a support system for all production activities in a company. The absence of rural development makes the growth of the economy and social development impossible. A system is always necessary to ensure that something runs properly. Hence, rural development is very important for the system to run properly and for the development to occur in a proper manner.

4. Where can I find answers to questions from Chapter 6 Rural Development?

Your NCERT textbook has many questions related to rural development. Rural development is a very important topic in Class 11 Economics. For answers and solutions to rural development questions, follow the solution given on Vedantu’s website and the app. It is the best website to get all the answers for rural development. Vedantu provides all the students with very accurate and detailed answers which are enough for the students to prepare for their examinations. The solutions are available free of cost to download.

5. What do you mean by rural development Class 11?

The social and economical upliftment of rural areas by following a thorough and proper action plan is known as rural development. Development of infrastructure, development of productivity and development of human resources are a part of rural development. The complete details of the chapter are available on Vedantu for your reference and to ensure you ace your exams with flying colours.

6. What do you mean by bringing out the key issues in rural development Class 11?

The key issues in rural development involve the following:

  • Reforming the lands

  • Developing human resources

  • Development of infrastructure

  • Development of productivity by developing the resources

  • Poverty alleviation by taking special measures

7. Is Chapter 6 an important Chapter In Class 11 Economics?

Chapter 6 is a very important chapter in Class 11 Economics. This chapter deals with Indian Economic development which is very important for everyone to learn in a proper manner. Not just Chapter 11, but every chapter carries its own weightage and is important in your Class 11 Economics. So yes, no chapter is less important in any subject. Students should give equal importance to all subjects and all chapters of every book.