The p block elements are the six elements in the periodic table located below group 3A and above group 5A, namely, carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). The p block elements are characterised as being poor metals. Details in the p block are best known for their semiconductor properties. This is because the valence band of these elements is filled with electrons, which makes them poor conductors of electricity. The following list gives an overview of the essential information about each component, including its atomic number and state at room temperature:
Carbon (C): atomic number 6, solid at room temperature
Silicon (Si): atomic number 14, substantial at room temperature
Germanium (Ge): atomic number 32, solid at room temperature
Tin (Sn): atomic number 50, solid at room temperature
Lead (Pb): atomic number 82, solid at room temperature
Flerovium (Fl): atomic number 114, solid at room temperature
Carbon: Carbon is the most important p block element. It is found in all living things and is the basis for organic chemistry. Carbon has four valence electrons, which makes it capable of forming covalent bonds with other atoms. This is illustrated in the following diagram, where carbon is shown with four bonds to hydrogen atoms. The lone electron pair on each hydrogen atom is left free to move around independently, allowing for side chains in proteins. Carbon's ability to form covalent bonds also allows it to link together long polymer chains, which form plastics and other materials found in nature and industry.
Silicon: Silicon is the second most important p block element. Silicon has four valence electrons, like carbon, but it can also form ionic bonds with other elements. This makes silicon a good conductor of electricity. Silicon is used in computer chips and solar cells because of its semiconductor properties.
Germanium: Germanium is a rarer p block element. It has four valence electrons like carbon and silicon, but it can also form ionic bonds with other elements. Germanium is used in transistors and optical fibres because of its semiconductor properties.
Tin: Tin is a common p block element. Tin has four valence electrons, like carbon and silicon, but it can only form covalent bonds with other atoms. Tin is used in cans and solder because of its low melting point.
Lead: Lead is a common p block element. Lead has four valence electrons, like carbon and silicon, but it can only form covalent bonds with other atoms. Lead is used in pencils and car batteries because of its low melting point.
Flerovium: Flerovium is the least common p block element. It has four valence electrons, like carbon and silicon, but it can only form covalent bonds with other atoms. Flerovium's name was chosen to honour the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in Russia, where superheavy elements were first created.
JEE Main Chemistry Chapters 2024
General Characteristics of p-Block Elements
P-Block Elements: In the atoms of the p-block elements, the last electron enters the p-subshell of the outermost shell. In these elements, the np subshell is gradually filled up. The valence shell configuration varies from ns2 np1 to ns2 np6.
These elements include some metals, all nonmetals and metalloids. s-block and p-block elements are collectively called normal or representative elements (except zero group elements). Each period ends with a member of zero groups (18th group), i.e., a noble gas with a closed shell ns2np6 configuration. Prior to a noble gas group, there were two chemically important groups of non-metals. These are halogens (group 17) and chalcogens (group 16).
p-block elements consist of the elements of six groups, viz. IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIlA and zero group. The number of electrons in the outermost shell varies from .3 to 8, i.e., they have a general configuration, ns2np1-6. The number of electrons in the penultimate shell is either 2 or 8, or 18.
Except for F and inert gases, p-block elements show a number of oxidation states from +n to (n -, 8), where n is the number of electrons present in the outermost shell.
The p-block elements generally show covalency, but higher members can show electrovalency. The highly electronegative elements like halogens, 0, 5, N, etc., show electrovalency by accepting electrons and forming anions. Some of the elements show coordinate valency also.
In the period from left to right, there is a regular increase in non-metallic character. However, non-metallic character decreases in the groups from top to bottom.
Ionisation energies increase from left to right in a period while a decrease in a group from top to bottom. The members of the V group and zero groups have exceptionally high values of ionisation energies on account of half-filled and fully filled orbitals in the valence shell.
In every period, reducing nature decreases from left to right while oxidising nature increases. Reducing nature increases in a group from top to bottom. Halogens are strong oxidising agents.
Most of them are highly electronegative. The electronegativity increases in a period from left to right and decreases in a group from top to bottom.
Most of them form acidic oxides.
No member of the p-block series or the salts imparts a characteristic colour to the flame.
Chemical properties change from group to group. It is difficult to summarise them.
A number of elements of the p-block series show the phenomenon of allotropy. Carbon, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, boron, germanium, tin, arsenic, etc., show this property.
Catenation property is shown by many elements of p-block series such as carbon, silicon, germanium, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, etc.
General Characteristics of Group IIIA or 13 Elements
Group IIIA or 13 of the periodic table consists of six elements-boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium and ununtrium. These are p-block elements as the last differentiating electron enters the np orbital. The configuration of the outermost energy shell is ns2 np1, i.e., this group marks the beginning of the p-block elements. Since the members of this group possess three electrons in the outermost or in their valence shell, they have many similarities in their properties. However, the penultimate shell (next to the outermost) contains i-grouping in boron, s2p6 (8 electrons) in aluminium and s2p6d10 (18 electrons) in other elements (Ga, In, Tl and Uut). This shows why boron differs from aluminium, and both boron and aluminium having noble gas kernels differ from the other four elements.
Groupwise Study of the P-Block Elements: Group 13
The p-block elements are a diverse group of elements in the periodic table, encompassing a wide range of chemical behaviors and applications. Group 13 of the p-block includes boron (B), aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), and thallium (Tl). In this article, we will focus on boron and aluminum, their preparation, properties, and uses, as well as essential compounds related to these elements.
Boron is primarily obtained from borax, a mineral composed of sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7·10H2O). The extraction process involves the reduction of borax with either carbon or magnesium.
Boron exists in various allotropes, with a crystalline form resembling black, lustrous crystals.
It is a poor conductor of electricity and has a high melting point.
Boron is a strong Lewis acid and forms complexes with various ligands.
It does not react with water or most acids, except for hot concentrated sulfuric acid.
Boron compounds are essential in organic synthesis, such as the Lewis acid catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction.
Boron is used as a deoxidizer in the production of steel and other alloys.
Boron is employed in control rods in nuclear reactors to absorb neutrons and regulate the nuclear fission process.
Glass and Ceramics:
Boron compounds are used in the manufacture of borosilicate glass, known for its resistance to thermal expansion and chemical corrosion.
Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust but is primarily extracted from bauxite ore. The Bayer process is used to refine bauxite to obtain aluminum oxide (alumina), which is then reduced to aluminum metal through the Hall-Héroult process.
Aluminum is a lightweight, silvery-white metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity.
It has a thin oxide layer that provides corrosion resistance.
Aluminum readily reacts with oxygen, forming a protective oxide layer that prevents further oxidation.
It reacts with both strong acids and strong bases, producing hydrogen gas.
Aluminum is used as a reducing agent in various chemical processes.
Aluminum is extensively used in the aerospace and automotive industries for its lightweight and corrosion-resistant properties.
Aluminum foil and containers are used for food packaging due to their excellent barrier properties and recyclability.
Aluminum is employed in the construction industry for windows, doors, and building structures.
Aluminum conductors are used for high-voltage electrical transmission lines.
Important Boron and Aluminum Compounds
Borax (Sodium Tetraborate, Na2B4O7·10H2O)
Borax is a hydrated sodium borate compound. It consists of chains of boron atoms bridged by oxygen atoms.
Properties and Uses:
Borax is used as a cleaning agent, particularly in laundry detergents, due to its ability to soften water and enhance the cleaning process.
It finds applications in the manufacturing of ceramics and glass.
Boric Acid (H3BO3)
Boric acid is a weak monobasic Lewis acid, forming trigonal planar boron species when dissolved in water.
Properties and Uses:
Boric acid is used as an antiseptic and insecticide.
It plays a crucial role in the production of borosilicate glass and as a flame retardant in various materials.
Diborane is a dimer of BH3, with boron atoms bonded to each other through hydrogen atoms.
Properties and Uses:
Diborane is a highly reactive compound used in organic synthesis as a reducing agent and in the preparation of boron compounds.
It is employed in the aerospace industry for its fuel properties.
Boron Trifluoride (BF3)
Boron trifluoride is a trigonal planar molecule, forming a coordinate covalent bond with Lewis bases.
Properties and Uses:
Boron trifluoride is used as a Lewis acid catalyst in various chemical reactions, including the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and plastics.
Aluminum Chloride (AlCl3)
Aluminum chloride exists as a dimer (Al2Cl6) or in its monomeric form, depending on its physical state and temperature.
Properties and Uses:
Aluminum chloride is employed as a catalyst in Friedel-Crafts reactions in organic synthesis.
It is also used in the purification of drinking water and wastewater treatment.
Alums (Double Sulfates)
Alums are a class of double sulfates that have a general formula M2SO4·M2(SO4)3·24H2O, where M is usually a univalent cation like potassium (K), sodium (Na), or ammonium (NH4).
Properties and Uses:
Alums are widely used as mordants in dyeing and tanning processes.
They are also employed in the water treatment industry for coagulation and flocculation.
General Characteristics of Group IVA or 14 Elements
Group IVA or 14 of the periodic table consists of six elements: carbon (C), -silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb) and ununquadium. These six elements constitute a family known as the carbon family. These are p-block elements as the last differentiating electron is accommodated in the np shell. These elements have four electrons in their valence shell and thus are placed in the IVth group.
The configurations show that these elements have the same number of electrons in the valence shell, i.e., 4 electrons in the valence shell, two of which are in s-orbital while the remaining two are in p-orbitals. Thus, they have ns2 np2 configuration, i.e., s-orbital is paired while two p-orbitals are unpaired.
The penultimate shell of carbon contains 2 electrons (saturated), silicon contains 8 electrons (saturated), and germanium contains 18 electrons (saturated), while Sn and Pb contain 18 electrons (unsaturated) each. This shows why carbon differs from silicon in some respects, and these two differ from the rest of the members of this group. The close resemblance between the elements is quite striking in the case of elements of the first and second groups, but this becomes less evident in the elements of the third group and still less evident in the fourth group.
Group 14 - Tendency for Catenation, Allotropes, Oxides, and Silicon Compounds
Group 14 of the periodic table consists of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), and lead (Pb). This group is notable for its members' ability to form covalent compounds, a tendency for catenation, and the presence of important allotropes. In this article, we'll explore the characteristics, structures, properties, and uses of various compounds within this group, with a focus on carbon and silicon, which are particularly relevant for JEE Main students.
Tendency for Catenation:
Catenation is the ability of an element to form long chains or rings by bonding with atoms of the same element. Carbon is a prime example of a non-metal that exhibits exceptional catenation. Carbon atoms can form a wide variety of compounds due to their ability to create strong covalent bonds with other carbon atoms. This property is the basis for the existence of organic compounds, which are essential in the field of chemistry.
Allotropes and Oxides of Carbon:
Diamond: Diamond is a well-known allotrope of carbon. It consists of carbon atoms arranged in a tetrahedral lattice structure, forming a three-dimensional network of strong covalent bonds. Diamonds are renowned for their exceptional hardness, brilliance, and use in jewelry.
Graphite: Graphite is another carbon allotrope where carbon atoms are arranged in layers of hexagonal rings. These layers are held together by weaker van der Waals forces, allowing them to slide past one another easily. This property makes graphite an excellent lubricant and a good conductor of electricity.
Fullerenes: Fullerenes are carbon molecules in the form of closed cages or tubes, such as C60 (buckminsterfullerene). They have unique properties and potential applications in nanotechnology, drug delivery, and material science.
Carbon Monoxide (CO): Carbon monoxide is a carbon oxide that can be found in exhaust gases from cars and is toxic to humans. It can bind to hemoglobin more strongly than oxygen, reducing the blood's oxygen-carrying capacity.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide is a vital component of the Earth's atmosphere. It is produced during combustion and respiration and plays a significant role in the greenhouse effect.
Silicon Tetrachloride (SiCl4): Silicon tetrachloride is a colorless, volatile liquid that is used in the production of high-purity silicon for semiconductors. It is also employed in the synthesis of organosilicon compounds and as a catalyst in organic reactions.
Silicates: Silicates are minerals that constitute a significant portion of the Earth's crust. They include materials like quartz, feldspar, and mica. Silicates are used in ceramics, glass production, and as building materials.
Zeolites: Zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicate minerals with a three-dimensional structure. They have a remarkable ability to adsorb and release water and other molecules. Zeolites are used in various applications, such as water softening, gas separation, and as catalysts in the petrochemical industry.
Silicones: Silicones are synthetic polymers with repeating silicon-oxygen (Si-O) bonds. They are known for their heat resistance, flexibility, and water repellency. Silicones are used in sealants, lubricants, cosmetics, and medical devices.
Applications and Significance:
The Group 14 elements have a wide range of applications, making them indispensable in various industries. Carbon's allotropes, such as diamond and graphite, have unique properties and uses, from high-tech materials to art and jewelry. Carbon-based compounds, particularly organic compounds, are the foundation of the field of organic chemistry, with applications in pharmaceuticals, plastics, and much more.
Silicon compounds are vital in the electronics industry, playing a key role in semiconductor devices. Silicones find applications in sealants, lubricants, and medical devices. Silicates and zeolites have applications in construction, water purification, and petrochemical processes.
General Characteristics of Group VA or 15 Elements
VA group or 15th group of the extended form of the periodic table consists of six elements-nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi) and ununpentium (Uup)*. This group of six elements constitutes a family. These elements are collectively known as pnictogens. These are p-block elements as the last differentiating electron is accommodated in the np shell. These elements have five electrons in the valence shell. The elements of the group possess the same electronic configuration and show similarities as well as gradation in their properties with the rise of atomic number from nitrogen to ununpentium.
The configurations show that these elements have the same number of electrons in the valence shell, i.e., 5 electrons in the valence shell, two of which are in the s-orbital and the remaining three in three p-orbitals. Thus, they have an ns2 np3 configuration, i.e., s-orbital is paired, and three p orbitals are unpaired.
The penultimate shell in nitrogen contains 2 electrons (saturated), in phosphorus contains 8 electrons (saturated), in arsenic, contains 18 electrons (saturated), while antimony and bismuth contain 18 electrons (unsaturated) each. This shows why nitrogen differs from phosphorus in some respects, and these two differ from the remaining elements of this group.
In accordance with Hund's rule, electronic configurations involving fully filled or exactly half-filled orbitals are the most stable. The elements of group VA, having exactly half-filled orbitals, are also fairly stable and not so reactive. Nitrogen behaves like a noble element under ordinary conditions.
Group 15 Elements: Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Group 15 of the periodic table, also known as the Nitrogen Group, comprises the elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and bismuth (Bi). In this discussion, we will focus on the properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as the preparation, properties, structure, and uses of essential compounds derived from these elements. These topics are crucial for JEE Main students aiming to master the chemistry of Group 15 elements.
Vedantu offers comprehensive and informative Group 15 Elements notes in PDF format, providing a detailed explanation of the properties, reactions, and applications of these important elements, making it an invaluable resource for students preparing for JEE Mains and other competitive exams.
Properties and Uses of Nitrogen (N):
Diatomic Molecule: Nitrogen exists as a diatomic molecule, N2, in its elemental form. It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas at room temperature and makes up approximately 78% of Earth's atmosphere.
Non-metal: Nitrogen is a non-metal with a high electronegativity, meaning it readily forms covalent bonds.
Chemically Inert: Nitrogen is relatively inert under standard conditions, which makes it essential for preserving substances that are sensitive to oxidation or degradation.
Liquid Nitrogen: It is used as a cryogenic refrigerant to preserve biological samples and superconductors.
Ammonia Production: Nitrogen is a key raw material in the production of ammonia, which is essential for the production of fertilizers and explosives.
Food Packaging: Nitrogen gas is employed to package food products, preventing spoilage and extending their shelf life.
Properties and Uses of Phosphorus (P):
Allotropes: Phosphorus exhibits various allotropes, with the most common forms being white phosphorus, red phosphorus, and black phosphorus.
White Phosphorus: It is a highly reactive, waxy, translucent solid that ignites spontaneously in air. Due to its extreme reactivity, it is used in incendiary devices.
Red Phosphorus: This is a more stable and less reactive form, used in safety matches.
Black Phosphorus: It has a layered structure and is a semiconductor with promising applications in electronics.
Fertilizers: Phosphorus is a vital component of fertilizers, essential for plant growth and crop production.
Phosphates: Phosphates, derived from phosphorus, are used in detergents, food preservation, and water treatment.
Semiconductors: Black phosphorus shows potential as a semiconductor in electronic devices.
Preparation, Properties, Structure, and Uses of Key Compounds:
Preparation: Ammonia is prepared through the Haber-Bosch process, which involves the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen in the presence of an iron catalyst.
Properties: Ammonia is a colorless gas with a pungent odor. It is highly soluble in water, forming ammonium hydroxide. It is also a weak base.
Structure: Ammonia has a trigonal pyramidal structure with a lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom.
Uses: Ammonia is a crucial component in the production of fertilizers, cleaning agents, and refrigerants.
Nitric Acid (HNO3):
Preparation: Nitric acid is prepared through the Ostwald process, which involves the oxidation of ammonia to nitric oxide, followed by its reaction with oxygen and water.
Properties: Nitric acid is a strong oxidizing agent, and its concentrated form is highly corrosive. It is a strong acid and dissociates completely in water.
Structure: Nitric acid is a polar molecule with a bent geometry.
Uses: It is used in the production of fertilizers, explosives, and as a laboratory reagent.
Preparation: Phosphine is prepared by the reaction of a metal phosphide with a strong acid, such as hydrochloric acid.
Properties: Phosphine is a colorless, flammable gas with a characteristic foul odor, often described as "garlic-like." It is highly toxic.
Structure: Phosphine has a pyramidal molecular geometry.
Uses: Phosphine has applications in the semiconductor industry and as a fumigant in stored grain.
Phosphorus Halides (PCl3, PCl5):
Preparation: Phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) is prepared by the direct chlorination of white phosphorus, while phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5) is prepared by the chlorination of PCl3.
Properties: PCl3 is a colorless liquid, while PCl5 is a yellow solid. Both are highly reactive and used as chlorinating agents.
Structure: PCl3 has a trigonal pyramidal structure, and PCl5 has a trigonal bipyramidal structure.
Uses: PCl3 and PCl5 are employed in various chemical reactions, including the production of organophosphorus compounds and as reagents in the laboratory.
Structures of Oxides and Oxoacids of Nitrogen and Phosphorus:
Oxides of Nitrogen:
Nitrogen forms several oxides, including nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4).
Nitrogen oxides have varied structures and are involved in atmospheric chemistry and industrial processes.
Oxoacids of Phosphorus:
Phosphorus forms oxoacids, including phosphoric acid (H3PO4), phosphorous acid (H3PO3), and hypophosphorous acid (H3PO2).
These acids have distinct structures and chemical properties, with phosphoric acid being the most common and commercially important.
What is the Boiling Point of Group 15 Elements?
The boiling points of group 15 elements generally increase from nitrogen to bismuth. This trend is due to the increasing van der Waals forces between the larger atoms of the heavier elements.
Here is a table of the boiling points of group 15 elements:
As you can see, the boiling point of group 15 elements increase from nitrogen to bismuth. This trend is due to the increasing van der Waals forces between the larger atoms of the heavier elements. Van der Waals forces are weak intermolecular forces that arise from temporary fluctuations in electron density. These forces become stronger as the size of the atoms increases, which is why the boiling points of group 15 elements increase from nitrogen to bismuth.
General Characteristics of Group VIA or 16 Elements
Group 16 or VIA of the extended form of periodic table consists of six elements oxygen (O), sulphur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), polonium (Po) and ununhexium (Uuh). This family is known as the oxygen family. These (except polonium and ununhexium) are the ore-forming elements and are thus called chalcogens. These are p-block elements as the last differentiating electron is accommodated on the np shell. These elements have six electrons in their valence shell and are thus placed in the VIth group. The elements oxygen and sulphur are common, while selenium, tellurium and polonium are comparatively rare. Oxygen is the most abundant element and is found both in the free as well as in the combined state. Oxygen makes up 20.9% by volume and 23% by mass of the atmosphere. Most of the oxygen present in the atmosphere is produced by photosynthesis in plants. It also occurs in the form of ozone in the upper atmosphere, which protects us from the harmful radiation of the sun. Oxygen makes up 46.6% of the mass of the earth's crust. Sulphur is the sixteenth most abundant element and constitutes 0.034% by mass of the earth's crust. It occurs mainly in the combined form. The member, polonium, is radioactive in nature. The inclusion of these elements in the same subgroup is justified on the basis of the same electronic configuration and similarities as well as gradation in their physical and chemical properties.
Group 16 Elements: Oxygen, Sulfur, Selenium, Tellurium, and Polonium
Group 16 elements, often referred to as the chalcogens, constitute an essential part of the periodic table. This group includes oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium, each possessing distinct characteristics and properties. In this discussion, we will delve into the preparation, properties, structures, and uses of ozone; the allotropic forms of sulfur; the preparation, properties, structures, and uses of sulfuric acid, with a focus on its industrial preparation; and a brief overview of the structures of oxoacids of sulfur.
Preparation, Properties, Structures, and Uses of Ozone (O3):
Preparation of Ozone:
Ozone is a triatomic molecule composed of three oxygen atoms (O3). It is produced through two primary methods:
Ultraviolet (UV) Irradiation: Ozone can be generated in the upper atmosphere when ultraviolet radiation from the sun interacts with molecular oxygen (O2), causing photodissociation and subsequent recombination into ozone.
Corona Discharge: In laboratories and industrial applications, ozone is often produced by passing a controlled electric discharge through dry oxygen.
Properties of Ozone:
Ozone has several notable properties:
It is a pale blue gas with a distinct, sharp odor.
It is an allotrope of oxygen, existing as a triatomic molecule.
Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent and can react vigorously with organic and inorganic substances.
Structure of Ozone:
Ozone possesses a bent or V-shaped structure, with an O-O-O bond angle of approximately 117 degrees. This bent structure results from the presence of lone pairs on the central oxygen atom.
Uses of Ozone:
Ozone finds diverse applications:
It is employed in water treatment to disinfect and remove impurities.
Ozone is used in air purification systems to eliminate odors and contaminants.
In the upper atmosphere, ozone plays a crucial role in shielding the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation, the ozone layer.
Allotropic Forms of Sulfur:
Sulfur exhibits several allotropes, with the most common ones being rhombic sulfur and monoclinic sulfur. These allotropes differ in their crystalline structures and properties.
Rhombic Sulfur: This yellow crystalline form is stable at temperatures below 96°C. It consists of puckered rings of eight sulfur atoms. Rhombic sulfur is relatively insoluble in water and is used in the production of sulfuric acid.
Monoclinic Sulfur: Monoclinic sulfur is a more stable form, found at temperatures above 96°C. It is composed of long, helical chains of sulfur atoms. Monoclinic sulfur is less soluble in water and has a more prominent role in industrial applications.
Preparation, Properties, Structures, and Uses of Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4):
Preparation of Sulfuric Acid:
Sulfuric acid, one of the most essential industrial chemicals, is primarily produced through the Contact Process. This method involves a series of reactions in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is oxidized to sulfur trioxide (SO3), followed by the absorption of SO3 in water to form sulfuric acid.
Properties of Sulfuric Acid:
Sulfuric acid is a colorless, oily liquid that is highly corrosive and exothermic when diluted with water. It is a strong dehydrating agent and exhibits a range of acid-base reactions. Concentrated sulfuric acid can cause severe burns and should be handled with care.
Structure of Sulfuric Acid:
Sulfuric acid is a diprotic acid, meaning it can donate two protons (H+) per molecule. Its chemical formula is H2SO4, and it consists of two hydrogen ions, one sulfur atom, and four oxygen atoms.
Uses of Sulfuric Acid:
Sulfuric acid has an array of industrial applications:
It is used in the production of fertilizers, particularly superphosphate.
Sulfuric acid is essential in the petroleum industry for refining crude oil.
It is employed in the manufacture of detergents, dyes, and synthetic fibers.
Structures of Oxoacids of Sulfur:
Sulfur forms various oxoacids, which are acids containing oxygen and sulfur. Examples include sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfurous acid (H2SO3), and thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3). Each of these oxoacids has a specific structure that corresponds to the arrangement of sulfur and oxygen atoms.
Electronegativity Order of Group 16 Elements:
The electronegativity of Group 16 elements exhibits a general trend of decreasing from top to bottom within the group. This trend is attributed to the increasing energy levels of valence electrons as you move down the group.
Melting Point of Group 16 Elements
As you can see, the melting points of the Group 16 elements increase as you move down the group. This is because the atomic radius of the elements increases as you move down the group, which makes the interatomic forces weaker. Weaker interatomic forces mean that more energy is required to break the bonds between the atoms, which results in a higher melting point.
The melting point of polonium is an exception to the trend. This is because polonium is a radioactive element, which means that it is constantly emitting radiation. The radiation causes the atoms of polonium to vibrate more, which makes it easier for them to break free from the interatomic forces. As a result, polonium has a lower melting point than would be expected based on its atomic radius.
Also, Refer to Vedantu’s comprehensive Group 16 Elements notes in PDF format, providing a detailed explanation of the properties.
General Characteristics of Group VIIA or 17 Elements
The 17th or VIIA group of the periodic table (extended form) consists of five elements; fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I) and astatine (At). This group of five elements forms a family known as the halogen family as their salts are found in seawater. Halogen is a Greek word meaning sea salt. Halogens are p-block elements as the last differentiating electron is accommodated on the np subshell. These elements have seven electrons in their valence shell and are thus placed in the VII group of the periodic table.
Except for astatine, the members are found in combined states in considerable quantities in nature. Astatine is an unstable element of radioactive origin. Astatine is a radioactive artificially prepared element. These elements possess the same electronic configuration and show similarities as well as gradual gradation in their physical and chemical properties.
Preparation, Properties, and Uses of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl):
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is prepared by the reaction of sodium chloride (NaCl) with sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The chemical equation for this reaction is:
2NaCl + H2SO4 \rightarrow 2HCl + Na2SO4
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless, highly corrosive, and pungent-smelling liquid. Its properties include:
Strong Acid: HCl is a strong acid, readily donating protons (H⁺ ions) in aqueous solutions.
Corrosive: It can corrode metals and has a strong etching effect on glass.
Highly Soluble: It is highly soluble in water.
Hydrochloric acid finds extensive applications in various industries:
Chemical Industry: It is used in the production of chlorine, which, in turn, is used for making PVC and other chemicals.
Metallurgy: HCl is used to purify ores in the extraction of metals.
Laboratory Reagent: It serves as an essential reagent in laboratories for pH control and acid-base titrations.
Food Industry: It is used for food production and as a preservative in the form of "food-grade" hydrochloric acid.
Trends in the Acidic Nature of Hydrogen Halides:
The acidic nature of hydrogen halides (HX, where X is a halogen) increases down the halogen group:
Hydrofluoric Acid (HF): HF is the weakest hydrogen halide acid due to the small size of fluorine and the strong H-F bond. It is a weak acid and only partially ionizes in water.
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl): HCl is a stronger acid compared to HF. It ionizes more completely in water.
Hydrobromic Acid (HBr): HBr is stronger than HCl in terms of acidity.
Hydroiodic Acid (HI): HI is the strongest hydrogen halide acid and ionizes almost completely in water.
Structures of Interhalogen Compounds and Halogen Oxides:
Interhalogen compounds are formed when different halogens combine. They exhibit a wide range of stoichiometries and structures, including linear (e.g., ClF), planar (e.g., BrF3), and T-shaped (e.g., ICl3).
Halogen oxides are compounds formed by the reaction of halogens with oxygen. They can be highly reactive and exhibit different stoichiometries and structures:
Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) is a reddish-brown gas used in water treatment.
Ozone (O3) is an allotrope of oxygen, and bromine and iodine also form various oxides.
Oxoacids of Halogens:
Oxoacids are acids that contain oxygen and halogens. Some prominent examples include:
Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl): This acid is a weak and unstable compound used for water disinfection.
Chloric Acid (HClO3): Chloric acid is a strong acid and a powerful oxidizing agent.
Perchloric Acid (HClO4): Perchloric acid is a strong acid, and its salts, perchlorates, are highly stable and non-reactive.
Melting Point of Group 17 Elements
As you can see, the melting points of Group 17 elements increase as you move down the group. This is because the atoms of the heavier elements have more electrons and are therefore held together more strongly by the attractive forces between the electrons and the nucleus.
General Characteristics of Group VIIIA or 18 Elements
The zero or 18th group consists of seven dements; helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, radon and ununoctium. The zero group was unknown when Mendeleev presented the periodic table and was inserted in the table only at a later stage. The existence of such a group may be naturally expected from the fact that there must be an inert art group as a transition when we go from highly electronegative elements (halogens) to highly electropositive elements (alkali metals). Thus, zero groups occupy the intermediate position between the elements of VIIA (17th) and IA (lst) groups.
Group 18 - The Noble Gases: Occurrence and Uses; Structures of Fluorides and Oxides of Xenon
Group 18 of the periodic table, also known as the noble gases, includes helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn). These elements are characterized by their low reactivity and stable electron configurations. In this discussion, we will explore the occurrence and uses of noble gases, as well as examine the structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon. This knowledge is essential for JEE Main students and provides insights into the unique properties and applications of these elements.
Occurrence and Uses of Noble Gases:
Occurrence: Helium is primarily extracted from natural gas deposits, where it is produced through the radioactive decay of heavier elements.
Uses: Helium is widely used for filling balloons, as it is lighter than air and non-flammable. It is also used in cryogenics, as a cooling medium for superconducting magnets, and in the aerospace industry.
Occurrence: Neon is relatively rare in the Earth's atmosphere and is obtained through fractional distillation of liquid air.
Uses: Neon is well-known for its use in neon signs, advertising, and lighting. It also finds applications in lasers and scientific research.
Occurrence: Argon is the most abundant noble gas in the Earth's atmosphere, constituting about 0.93%.
Uses: Argon is commonly used as a shielding gas in welding and as an inert atmosphere in chemical reactions. It is also utilized in the production of semiconductors.
Krypton (Kr) and Xenon (Xe):
Occurrence: Krypton and xenon are found in trace amounts in the Earth's atmosphere.
Uses: Krypton is used in some types of photographic flash lamps, while xenon is employed in xenon arc lamps, which emit extremely bright and intense light. Xenon is also used in medical imaging, such as in xenon CT scans.
Occurrence: Radon is a radioactive noble gas that is produced as a decay product of uranium and thorium.
Uses: Radon is not used intentionally due to its radioactive nature. Instead, it is a health concern when it accumulates in poorly-ventilated spaces, as it decays to form radioactive elements.
Structures of Fluorides and Oxides of Xenon:
Xenon is unique among noble gases because it can form compounds with fluorine, resulting in xenon fluorides, and with oxygen, leading to xenon oxides.
Xenon fluorides are highly reactive compounds formed by the reaction of xenon with fluorine. The most well-known xenon fluorides are XeF2, XeF4, and XeF6. These compounds are used in various chemical reactions and as powerful fluorinating agents.
Xenon oxides, particularly XeO3 and XeO4, are formed by the reaction of xenon with oxygen. These compounds are powerful oxidizing agents and are stable at high pressures. Xenon oxides have applications in research and chemical reactions.
Melting Point of Group 18 Elements
The melting points of Group 18 elements, also known as the noble gases, exhibit a general trend of increasing from top to bottom within the group. This trend is attributed to the increasing strength of the van der Waals forces between the atoms as their atomic size increases. Here's a table summarizing the melting points of Group 18 elements:
The increasing melting points of Group 18 elements can be explained by the increasing strength of van der Waals forces as atomic size increases. Van der Waals forces are weak intermolecular forces that arise due to temporary fluctuations in electron distribution. As the atomic size increases, the electron clouds become more polarizable, leading to stronger van der Waals forces. These stronger forces provide more energy to overcome, resulting in higher melting points.
P Block Elements Atomic Number
P block elements belong to Groups 13 to 18 of the periodic table. They are characterized by having their valence electrons in the p orbitals. The P Block elements atomic number range from 5 to 18. Here is a table of the p-block elements with their atomic numbers:
P Block Trends
Some of the general trends observed among p-block elements:
Atomic Radius: As you move down a group, the atomic radius increases due to the addition of new energy levels. Moving across a period from left to right, the atomic radius decreases due to the increased nuclear charge and decreased shielding effect of inner electrons.
Ionization Energy: Ionization energy, the energy required to remove an electron from an atom, generally increases as you move from left to right across a period due to the increased nuclear charge and decreased shielding effect of inner electrons. However, there are some exceptions, such as the decrease in ionization energy between boron and aluminum and nitrogen and phosphorus. This is due to the extra stability of half-filled and fully filled p orbitals.
Electron Affinity: Electron affinity, the energy released when an electron is added to an atom, generally decreases as you move down a group due to the increased energy levels. Moving across a period from left to right, electron affinity generally increases due to the increased nuclear charge and decreased shielding effect of inner electrons. However, there are some exceptions, such as the decrease in electron affinity between chlorine and bromine.
Electronegativity: Electronegativity, the measure of an atom's ability to attract electrons in a chemical bond, generally decreases as you move down a group due to the increased energy levels. Moving across a period from left to right, electronegativity generally increases due to the increased nuclear charge and decreased shielding effect of inner electrons.
Metallic Character: Metallic character generally decreases as you move down a group and increases as you move from left to right across a period. This is because the energy required to remove an electron (ionization energy) increases as you move down a group and decreases as you move from left to right across a period.
Acidic/Basic Character of Oxides and Hydroxides: Oxides and hydroxides of p-block elements generally become more basic as you move down a group. This is because the size of the anion increases as you move down a group, making it a weaker base conjugate. Across a period, the acidic character of oxides increases, while the basic character of hydroxides decreases.
Chemical Reactivity: p-block elements generally exhibit a wide range of chemical reactivity. They can form compounds with various elements and display different oxidation states. Their reactivity is influenced by factors such as their electronegativity, ionization energy, and electron affinity.
These P Block trends provide a general understanding of the behavior of P-block elements. However, there are exceptions to these trends due to the complexities of atomic structure and bonding.
JEE Main Chemistry P Block Elements Study Materials
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JEE Main Chemistry Study and Practice Materials
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The study of P Block Elements is pivotal for JEE Main aspirants. This group encompasses diverse elements with unique properties, playing a significant role in the world of chemistry. From non-metals to metalloids, these elements form the building blocks of countless compounds and reactions. Understanding their reactivity, periodic trends, and various applications is essential for success in the JEE Main examination and for a broader comprehension of the chemical world. A solid grasp of P Block Elements not only equips students with the knowledge to excel in the exam but also provides a strong foundation for further studies in the realm of chemistry, making it a fundamental and indispensable topic for JEE Main preparation.