In chemistry, hydroxide is a highly common name used for the diatomic anion OH, with hydroxide chemical formula OH−. Hydroxide consist of atoms of hydrogen and oxygen, generally extracted from the dissociation of a base. Hydroxide is an oxygen hydride that plays the role of a mouse metabolite. Hydroxide also makes for a conjugate base of water. It is one of the simplest diatomic ions known to any chemical reaction. Hydroxide ion is a type of ligand which actively donates a pair of electrons, conducting as a Lewis base. Examples include the aurate ion [Au (OH)4] and - the aluminate ion [Al (OH)4].
Hydroxide Chemical Formula Reaction
The hydroxide ion develops salts, few of which dissociate in aqueous solution, freeing up the solvated hydroxide ions. A hydroxide linked to a strongly electropositive centre may ionize itself, freeing up a hydrogen cation (H+), forming the parent compound which is an acid.
Sodium Hydroxide Formula
One of the most common inorganic bases or alkalis, sodium hydroxide, is also called caustic soda or Lye. The chemical formula of sodium hydroxide is NaOH with a molar mass of 40.01 g/mol.
Sodium Hydroxide Structure
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is an ionic compound composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and hydroxide (OH-) anion. It is the alkali salt of sodium of which the chemical structure is shown below:
NaOH(s) → Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)
Sodium Hydroxide Preparation
Sodium hydroxide is industrially produced by undergoing the process of electrolytic chloralkali. In the process, electrolysis of the aqueous sodium chloride solution provides chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide is acquired as a solution in water with a composition of 50% and is then dried to make solid sodium hydroxide pellets or flakes. Below is the chemical chain that occurs in the preparation of NaOH.
2 NaCl + 2 H2O → 2 NaOH + Cl2 + H2
Sodium Hydroxide Physical & Chemical Properties
Physical Properties: The main physical property of NaOH is that it is white crystalline solid which is odourless having a density of 2.13 g/mL and the melting point of 318 °C. Because of this physical property of NaOH, it is widely available as granules, pellets and flakes and also as aqueous solutions of different concentrations.
Chemical Properties: Sodium hydroxide is highly soluble in polar solvents such as water, ethanol and methanol. It is insoluble in organic solvents such as alcohols, esters, ethers and benzene or acetone. Dissolving solid NaOH in water will result in a highly exothermic reaction and the consequent aq. NaOH solution will be a colourless, odourless and crucial base used in the laboratory. Having a strong base, sodium hydroxide instantly reacts with acids such as HCl, to create the corresponding salts, as mentioned below:
NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O
Sodium hydroxide is highly hygroscopic meaning that it readily absorbs water from the air as well as carbon dioxide from the atmospheric air.
Uses of Sodium Hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide is one of the most widely used chemical bases in industrial applications. The extensive use of NaOH is mainly in industries such as textiles industry, paper and pulp industry, petroleum industry, etc. It is used in the manufacturing of soaps and detergents and for cleaning drinking water and drain cleaner. Also known as lye and caustic soda, it is also widely used in the Bayer process of aluminium production, industrial disinfecting and pH regulation. NaOH is also used in the food industry for various applications.
NaOH has its own set of benefits as protection against many health/safety hazards. It is a highly powerful and corrosive alkali, which easily decomposes living organism tissues.
Health Hazards Associated With Sodium Hydroxide
Skin contact with NaOH solutions can lead to severe chemical burns and eye contact can cause permanent blindness. Solid NaOH produces a high exothermic reaction (corrosive) when it reacts with water and acids and thus can cause burns by splashing.
NaOH is a multi-million-ton annual commodity chemical.
The worldwide production of sodium hydroxide was approximately 60 million tonnes in 2004 while 42 million tonnes was produced in 2005 using the Solvay process.
The principal method used to manufacture NaOH is the chloralkali process.
Solutions consisting of the hydroxide ion are formed when a salt of a weak acid is solvated in water.
Sodium carbonate is used as an alkali, for example, through the hydrolysis reaction.