CBSE Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Revision Notes on Physical Features of India: Free PDF Download

Physical Features of India Class 9 Notes Geography Chapter 2 - PDF Download

Often, we do not have an adequate amount of study material or notes to study from. When it is an important subject like Geography, we cannot afford to take the risk of studying with limited material as it won’t help in the exam. This is why Vedantu offers Social Science Geography revision notes for Class 9 students. If you are in Class 9 and want to study the physical Features of India, you must download CBSE revision notes for Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Physical Features of India. It will provide you with all the requisite information about Chapter 2 which is about all the physical features of India.

Important Topics and Subtopics Covered in CBSE Class 9 Geography Chapter 2

Enlisted below are the topics and subtopics of CBSE Class 9 Geography Chapter 2. Very short answer type questions from these topics were asked in the previous years’ examinations. Hence, these topics hold much significance for students appearing in the upcoming exams.

  • Location

  • Major Physiographic Divisions 

  • The Himalayan Mountains

  • The Northern Plains

  • The Peninsular Plateau

  • The Indian Desert

  • The Coastal Plains

  • The Island

  • Usefulness and significance of these Physical Features

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Access Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Physical Features of India part-1

Access Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Physical Features of India

India is a vast country with diverse landforms, including the lofty Himalayan range, the fertile northern plains, coastal plains in the east and west coasts of India, the Peninsular plateau in the south, and two groups of islands in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, respectively. Earth scientists have sought to explain the formation of physical features using several theories, one of which is the "Theory of Plate Tectonics."

Formation of the Landscape on the Basis of the Theory of Plate Tectonics

The ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics’ explains that the upper part of the Earth which is known as the crust has been formed out of seven major, and some minor plates. The movements of the plates result in the building up of movements within the plates leading to folding, faulting and volcanic activity. The movements of plates into three types:

  1. A convergent boundary is one in which the plates move towards one other.

  2. A divergent boundary is one in which the plates move away from each other.

  3. When two plates encounter, they may either collide or disintegrate, or one may slip under the other to form a transform boundary.

Over millions of years, the movements of these plates have altered the size and position of the continents, influencing the evolution of India's current landform features. The majority of volcanoes and earthquakes in the world occur along plate margins, however, some do occur within the plates. 

The peninsular part of India is made up of one of the world's oldest landmasses, Gondwana land. It was formerly a unified landmass made up of India, Australia, South Africa, South America, and Antarctica, but it later drifted apart due to conventional currents.

Physical Features of India and Their Characteristics

India's physical characteristics are classified into the following physiographic divisions:

The Himalayan Mountains

  • The Himalayan Mountains stretch over India's northern boundaries. These mountain ranges run west-east from the Indus to the Brahmaputra.

  • The Himalayas are young-fold mountains that are the loftiest and one of the most rugged mountain barriers of the world.

  • The Himalayas span approximately 2400 km and vary in width from 400 km to 150 km from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh.

  • In terms of longitudinal extent, the Himalayas have three parallel ranges, namely:

  • Greater Himalayas or the Himadri: The northern most range is known as the Himadri or Inner or Great Himalayas It is the most continuous range, consisting of the highest peaks with an average elevation of 6000 metres. The core of this Himalayan region is made of granite and is asymmetrical in nature.

  • Lesser Himalayas or the Himachal: The rugged mountain region to the south of the Himadri is known as the Lesser Himalayas or Himachal. The altitude of this mountain range varies between 3700 and 4500 meters whereas the average width is 50 kilometres. It includes ranges like Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar, and Mahabharat, of which the Pir Panjal range forms the longest and the most important range. 

  • The Shiwaliks: The outermost range of the Himalayas is known as the Shiwaliks whose altitude varies between 900 and 1100 metres and extends over a width of 10-50 kilometres. The term "Duns" refers to the longitudinal valley that spans between the Lesser Himalayas and the Shiwaliks. Some of the well-known Duns is DehraDun, Kotli Dun, and Patli Dun.

  • The Himalayas have also been divided into regions from west to east:

  • The Himalayan region between the Indus and the Satluj has traditionally been referred as the Punjab Himalaya, but it is also known as Kashmir and Himachal Himalaya from west to east.

  • The Kumaon Himalayas are the Himalayas between the Satluj and Kali rivers.

  • The Nepal Himalayas is defined by the Kali and Teesta rivers.

  • Assam Himalayas refers to the area between the Teesta and Dihang rivers.

The Himalayas curve sharply to the south beyond the Dihang gorge and spread along India's eastern border, known as the Purvachal, or Eastern hills and mountains. Purvachal is comprised of the Patkai, Naga, Manipur, and Mizo hills. 

The Northern Plains

  • The northern plain was determined by the interplay of India's three major river systems, namely the Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra, as well as their tributaries.

  • The northern plain expands over an area of about 7 lakh sq. km. which is 2400 km long and 240-320 km broad.  

  • It comprises alluvial soil deposits which are formed at the basin lying at the foothills of the Himalayas. They are fertile and densely populated because of their favourable climate and agricultural productivity.  

  • It is broadly divided into three sections, namely:

  • The Punjab Plains are the westernmost section of the Northern Plain. The Indus and its tributaries, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Satluj, comprise this plain.

  • The Ganga plain which is  situated between the Ghaggar and Teesta rivers. It is spread across North India, including Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and parts of Jharkhand and West Bengal.

  • The Brahmaputra plain lies to the east of the Ganga plain in the state of Assam. 

  • The Northern Plains can be separated into four regions based on the variations in relief features.

  • The rivers deposit pebbles in a narrow belt 8 to 16 km wide that runs parallel to the Shiwaliks' slopes, after descending from the mountains. This is known as bhabar.

  • Streams and rivers re-emerge, forming the terai, a damp, swampy, and marshy region.

  • The majority of the northern plain is made up of older alluvium. It is located above the floodplains of the rivers and has a terrace-like feature known as bhangar.

  • Kankar is the name given to the soil in the Bhangar region, which comprises calcareous deposits.

  • Khadar refers to the floodplains' newer, younger deposits.

The Peninsular Plateau

  • The Peninsular plateau is a tableland, it is made up of ancient crystalline, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. It was formed as a result of the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land. The black soil area known as Deccan Trap is one of the Peninsular plateau's distinguishing features.

  • This plateau consists of two broad divisions-

  • The Central Highlands: This division lies to the north of the Narmada River and encompasses a large portion of the Malwa plateau. The central highlands are bounded on the north-west by the Aravalli range and on the south by the Vindhyan range. The Central Highlands are wider in the west as compared to  the east. The Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand are the plateau's eastward extensions. The Chhota Nagpur Plateau denotes the farther eastward extension drained by the Damodar river.

  • The Deccan Plateau: It is a triangular landmass to the south of the Narmada River. The Plateau is also evident in the northeast, where it is known as the Meghalaya, Karbi-Anglong Plateau, and North Cachar Hills. In the north, the Satpura range flanks its broad base, while the Mahadev, Kaimur Hills, and Maikal range that comprise of its eastern extensions.

  • The Deccan Plateau's western and eastern edges are marked by the Western and Eastern Ghats, respectively.

  • The Western Ghats are higher in elevation than the Eastern Ghats. The highest peak in the Western Ghats is Anaimudi, which stands at 2695 metres, and the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is Mahendragiri, which stands at 1501 metres.

The Indian Desert

  • Near the western margins of the Aravalli Hills, the Indian Desert is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes.

  • Large areas of the Indian Desert near Pakistan are covered in crescent-shaped dunes known as barchans. 

  • This region receives about 150 mm of rain annually. 

  • The Luni River is the only large river in this region, owing to the arid climate and low vegetation cover.

The Coastal Plains

  • A coastal plain is a low-lying, flat area of land that is adjacent to the ocean. 

  • Two narrow strips of plain lands are found to the west and east of the peninsular plateau, which is known as the Western Coastal Plain and Eastern Coastal Plain, respectively.

  • The Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea form a barrier along the western coast. It is a narrow plain divided into three sections. 

  • The northern part of the west coast is called the Konkan, from Mumbai – Goa. The Kannad Plain is the central stretch, and the Malabar Coast is the southern stretch.

  • The Eastern Coastal Plains is a large area of a landmass that stretches between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. The northern part is known as the Northern Circar, while the southern part is known as the Coromandel Coast.

  • On the east coast, large rivers such as the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri have formed extensive deltas. Lake Chilika is a significant feature on the east coast.

The Islands

  • The Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep Islands are two groups of islands in India. These islands lie close to the equator, have an equatorial climate, and a dense forest cover.

  • In the Arabian Sea, the Lakshadweep Islands group lies near Kerala. The Lakshadweep Islands were once known as Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindive. The administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep is located on Kavaratti Island. The flora and fauna of this island group are extremely diverse.

  • The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are an island group in the Bay of Bengal. These islands are a ridge of submarine mountains. The entire group of islands is divided into two broad categories i.e the Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south.

India's regions complement one another, making the country's natural resources more abundant. Mountains serve as a source of both forests and water. The plains provide grain. Minerals are abundant in plateaus whereas coastal areas are important for fishing and port development.

Important Questions and Answers

1. Which are the major physiographic divisions of India?

Ans: The major physiographic divisions of India are as follows:

  • The Great Himalayas

  • The Northern Plains

  • The Peninsular Plateau 

  • The Coastal Plains, namely the Western and Eastern Coastal plains

  • The Islands 

2. How were the Himalayas formed?

Ans: The Himalayas were formed by the collision of India and Eurasian tectonic plates. The northern margin of the Indian plate was pushed beneath the Eurasian plate, causing the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau to rise. The Himalayas were formed by the uplift of the Tethys, a geosyncline accumulation of sedimentary rocks.

3. Differentiate between Bhangar and Khadar.

Ans: The difference between  Bhangar and Khadar are:



It is the old alluvial soil that is found away from the river.

It is the newer alluvial soil that is found near the river basin.

It is coarse because it is made up of calcareous deposits known as Kankar.

Every year, Khadar is replenished. It is extremely fertile and ideal for cultivation.

The soil in this region is dark in colour and is well-drained.

The silt comprises clay, sand and mud. It is light in colour.

4. Differentiate between converging and diverging tectonic plates.

Ans: The difference between converging and diverging tectonic plates are:

Converging Tectonic Plates

Diverging Tectonic Plates 

The plates that move towards each other is referred to as converging tectonic plates

The plates that drift away from each other are known as diverging tectonic plates. 

The converging plate boundaries are known as destructive plates.

The diverging plates are known as constructive plates.

Converging plate boundaries cause explosive volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other natural disasters.

Diverging plate boundaries result in the formation of new oceanic crusts, as well as the formation of transform faults and other features.

The Important Physiographic Division of India

The physical features of India map will showcase the various important divisions of India. In this section, you will learn about the physical features of India Class 9 that are categorised under the following physiographic divisions:

  • The Himalayan Mountains.

  • The Northern Plains.

  • The Peninsular Plateau.

  • The Indian Desert.

  • The Coastal Plains.

  • The Islands.

These are the most important physiographic division that you must learn in Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 notes. The Physical Features of India Class 9 notes will inform you about this physical division in details.

Things to Learn About the Himalayan Mountains

Himalayan Mountains are stretched over the northern borders of India. From the Indus to the Brahmaputra, these mountain ranges run in the west-east direction. Also, in its longitudinal extent, it has three parallel ranges which have been discussed in Geography Class 9 Chapter 2 notes.

The three parallel ranges are the Great or Inner Himalayas which is also known as Himadri, Himachal or Lesser Himalaya and Shiwaliks. Below are the detailed descriptions of these ranges that you might require for Physical Features of India project.

Himadri is the northernmost range. It has the loftiest peaks and is regarded as the most continuous mountain range. It has an average height of 6,000 metres. The folds of Himadri are asymmetrical and the core of this section of Himalayas is composed of granite.

To the south of Himadri is the most rugged mountain system which is regarded as the lesser Himalaya or Himachal. It is also important to know that the Pir Panjal range is regarded as the most important and longest range. Lastly, the outermost Himalayan range is known as Shiwaliks which are composed of unconsolidated sediments. The longitudinal valley that lies between Himachal and Shiwaliks are known as Duns. The most popular Duns are Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun and Patli Dun.

Did You Know?

  • Himalaya has been divided from west to east.

  • Punjab Himalaya is the part that lies between Indus and Satluj regions. It is also regarded as Kashmir and Himachal Himalaya from west to east.

  • Kumaon Himalayas is the part that lies between Satluj and Kali rivers.

  • The Nepal Himalayas is the region between rivers Kali and Teesta and between Teesta and Dihang rivers lies the Assam Himalayas.

  • The easternmost boundary of Himalaya is marked by the Brahmaputra.

The Himalayan bend sharply to the south beyond the Dihang gorge is known as Purvanchal that comprises Patkai hills, the Naga hills, the Manipur hills and the Mizo hills. All of these form an important part of the geographical features of India.

Lastly, with the help of The Physical Features of India Class 9 notes PDF, you will be able to understand the potential of these features in the future. For example, the mountains serve as the major source of water and forest wealth. On one hand, the northern plains are the granaries of the country, the plateaus are the storehouse of minerals and on the other hand, the coastal region provides for port activities and fishing. All of this information is highly essential not only to get good marks in exams but also increase knowledge about the geography of India.

Key Features of CBSE Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Physical Features of India Revision Notes

  1. CBSE Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 revision notes are created by our subject experts who have in-depth knowledge of the subject and the paper pattern of the CBSE Geography exam. 

  2. The revision notes cover all important topics and subtopics as per the syllabus and exam requirements. These are supplemented with solved important questions that have been prepared catering to the approach that students should take for answering questions in the exam.

  3. These notes have been written in a concise format, while also ensuring an in-depth understanding of the whole chapter and every important point that has been covered.

  4. The revision notes of Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 have been created in a simple and easy-to-understand language, keeping in mind the readability and quick understanding of key concepts. 

  5. To ensure that students are not required to go through the entire chapter before the exam, the notes have been drafted to facilitate quick and effective revision of all topics covered in the chapter. 

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If you haven’t yet downloaded the CBSE Class 9 Geography Notes for Chapter 2 Physical Features of India, then download the free PDF for free from Vedantu. The revision notes will help you prepare in the right way and boost your confidence to answer any question in the exam. You will be able to cover every topic of the chapter with the help of these notes during the crucial hours before the exam and also know the right approach to frame your answers in the answer script. 

FAQs on CBSE Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Revision Notes on Physical Features of India: Free PDF Download

1. Describe the Northern Plain and the Peninsular Plateau.

The interplay of 3 major rivers, the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra along with their tributaries has given birth to the northern plain. The northern plain spreads over 7 lakh sq. km. This plain is divided into Punjab plain, Ganga plain and Brahmaputra plain. Also, this region can be divided into 4 regions which are Bhabar, Terai, Bhangar and Kankar. In Geography Chapter 2 Class 9 Notes, you will also get to learn that the newer, younger deposits of the floodplains are called Khadar. It is a tableland composed of old crystalline, metamorphic and igneous rocks. This plateau was formed because of the drifting and breaking of Gondwanaland. The distinctive feature of this plateau is the Deccan trap which is the black soil area. The two important divisions of this plateau are the Central Highlands and The Deccan Plateau. The western and the eastern edges of the plateau are marked by the western and eastern Ghats respectively.

2. What are the Coastal Plains and the Islands of India?

This is a flat low-lying land that is next to the ocean. Two narrow pieces of land that are found in the east and the west of the peninsular plateau are known as Eastern Coastal Plain and Western Coastal Plain respectively. You can also avail this information by looking for physical features meaning in Hindi. An island is a sub-continental land surrounded by water. The group of islands are divided into two categories and are named the Andaman and the Nicobar Islands located in the north and south respectively. These islands lie close to the equator and you will understand them better if you make a Physical Features of India PPT on your own with the help of the Physical Features of India Notes.

3. How to study Chapter 2 of Class 9 Geography efficiently?

Class 9 Geography can be a scoring subject if you plan and use wise strategies to prepare for it. Follow these tips to study Chapter 2 of Class 9 Geography efficiently -

  • Read Chapter 2 multiple times and prepare meticulously from it.

  • Make notes of important information. Use mind maps, tables, and flow charts to jot down relevant information.

  • Take help from online study material and videos to understand the topic well.

  • Practice maps well.

  • Practice sample papers and previous years’ question papers available on vedantu website.

4. Are Vedantu’s revision notes beneficial for Chapter 2 Geography?

Many students find Geography as a dry and boring subject. Since it involves extensive reading, revision notes are a time-saving way to study Geography efficiently. Vedantu’s Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Revision Notes are of great value to students for the following reasons -

  • They are carefully prepared by teachers with years of experience in teaching geography.

  • They are easy to understand, straightforward, and uncomplicated.

  • They are prepared to keep the exam preparation of students in mind.

  • They are prepared as per CBSE guidelines.

The Vedantu revision notes can be downloaded free of cost from the vedantu website (

5. What are the physical features of India?

India is a country with immense geographical diversity. It has many geographical features including:

  • Himalayan mountains

  • Northern Plains

  • Peninsular plateau

  • Indian desert

  • Coastal plains

  • Islands

Chapter 2 "Physical Features of India" explains the characteristics of the above-mentioned physical divisions of India. Each physiographic feature is explained in detail outlining the diverse geographical beauty of our nation. Students can use Vedantu’s Revision Notes for Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 for a better understanding of the chapter.

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