Maharashtra Board Class 12 Solutions for Biology Chapter 11 Enhancement of Food Production

VSAT 2022

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Solutions for Biology Chapter 11 Enhancement of Food Production – Download Free PDF with Solution

Food is the prime source of energy that every living organism needs to carry with its physiological functions. Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 explains how food is obtained and important for the survival of all the living organisms in the world.


To understand its concepts, focus on the Enhancement of Food Production Solutions prepared by the experts of Vedantu. In these notes, all the fundamental concepts related to food have been simplified. You can refer to these notes to prepare this chapter well.

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Download PDF of Maharashtra Board Class 12 Solutions for Biology Chapter 11 Enhancement of Food Production

Access Maharashtra Board Solutions for Biology Class 12 Chapter 11 Enhancement of Food Production

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Antibiotic Chloromycetin is obtained from .....................

  1. Streptomyces erythreus

  2. Penicillium chrysogenum

  3. Streptomyces venezuelae

  4. Streptomyces griseus

Ans: The correct option is (c.) Streptomyces venezuelae.

Chloromycetin, an antibiotic, is extracted using this bacterium. It is a bacteria that lives in the soil and is gram-positive. For the treatment of bacterial eye infections, the antibiotic that was extracted is employed.


2. Removal of large pieces of floating debris, oily substances, etc. during sewage treatment is called ................

  1. primary treatment

  2. secondary treatment

  3. final treatment

  4. amplification

Ans: The correct option is (a.) primary treatment.

The process of treating sewage begins with this. In sizable tanks, the wastewater is allowed to settle. Other lighter substances are scraped off the top while the heavier substances sink to the bottom. The lighter material includes oil, fats, plastic, etc., whereas the heavier substances can comprise dirt and other insoluble particles.


3. Which one of the following is a free-living bacterial biofertilizer?

  1. Azotobacter

  2. Rhizobium

  3. Nostoc

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis

Ans: The correct option is (a.) Azotobacter.

This group of bacteria is free-living. It can fix atmospheric nitrogen into a more useful form, like ammonia, because it is a diazotroph. This genus species can be found on various plants as well as in alkaline soils and watery settings.


4. Most commonly used substrate for industrial production of beer is .............

  1. barley

  2. wheat

  3. corn

  4. sugarcane molasses

Ans: The correct option is (a.) barley.

To stop the germination process, the barley seeds are dried. When necessary, they are soaked in water until they germinate. Malt is the term for this specific stage of the barley seeds. Beers are created during the fermentation of malt since this is when the carbohydrates are transformed into alcohol.


5. Ethanol is commercially produced through a particular species of ..............

  1. Aspergillus

  2. Saccharomyces

  3. Clostridium

  4. Trichoderma

Ans: The correct option is (b.) Saccharomyces.

Due to its low pH range and strong tolerance to alcohol, this organism is used for the fermentation of commercially available ethanol. The raw materials used to make ethanol include sugarcane, potatoes, fruits, molasses, corn, and others. Numerous species of yeast are found in the fungus genus Saccharomyces.


6. One of the free-living anaerobic nitrogen-fixers is .....................

  1. Azotobacter

  2. Beijerinckia

  3. Rhodospirillum

  4. Rhizobium

Ans: The correct option is (c.) Rhodospirillum.

It is a free-living, Gram-negative bacterium. Both aerobic and anaerobic extremes don't affect its ability to survive. This bacterium can sustain its energy levels in the absence of oxygen through photosynthesis and fermentation. Its flagellated outer cell surface makes it motile. Sulphur is a key byproduct of photosynthesis.


7. Microorganisms also help in the production of food like .................

  1. bread

  2. alcoholic beverages

  3. vegetables

  4. pulses

Ans: The correct option is (a.) bread.

Yeast is added to the dough used to make bread, which is then left alone for a while. This microorganism ferments the dough's sugar by acting on it. By using anaerobic fermentation to create alcohol, carbon dioxide is produced as a byproduct, which helps the dough rise. This gives the bread a lovely, fluffy texture.


8. MOET technique is used for ............

  1. production of hybrids

  2. inbreeding

  3. outbreeding

  4. outcrossing

Ans: The correct option is (c.) outbreeding.

This describes the process of interbreeding two unrelated members of the same breed. This is the typical method used to breed cattle. A large number of eggs are produced using the MOET procedure, and these eggs are then fertilised inside the mother's womb. In surrogate mothers, these fertilised eggs are flushed out and developed further. Outbreeding produces healthy offspring that produce healthy products like milk and meat for human consumption.


9. Mule is the outcome of ..............

  1. inbreeding

  2. artificial insemination

  3. interspecific hybridization

  4. outbreeding

Ans: The correct option is (c.) interspecific hybridization.

As the name implies, this is a hybrid of two distinct species that might or might not be members of the same genus. Outcrossing is similar to this, however, this is more focused. In contrast to mammals, plants do not experience infertility or decreased fertility as a result of interspecific hybridization. The male donkey and female horse give birth to the mule.


Very Short Answer Questions

1. What makes idlis puffy?

Ans: The batter is fermented with yeast or bacteria when making idli batter. Idlis get puffy because carbon dioxide bubbles created during fermentation become trapped in the gluten.

  • The rice and black lentils are minced and formed into a tender batter that is allowed to ferment overnight. Effervescence and heat emission arise from fermentation, a chemical process in which bacteria or yeast are involved to break down food particles for them.

  • To release carbon dioxide that dissolves in the water molecules in the batter and causes the battery to swell, the yeast multiplies in the batter (via black lentils since they are high in protein). The batter becomes thicker and puffier as a result.

  • When the batter is cooked while being consumed, all the yeast is killed, resulting in a fluffy idli.


2. Name any two bacterial biofertilisers.

Ans:  Biofertilizers are materials that have microorganisms in them; when added to the soil, they make the soil more fertile and encourage plant development. Rhizobium and Azospirillum are two different kinds of biofertilizers.


Two types of biofertilizers:

  • Rhizobium: One of the essential symbiotic bacteria that fix nitrogen is rhizobium. Here, bacteria look for cover and eat plants. They assist by giving the plants fixed nitrogen in return.

  • Azospirillum: Azospirillum is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium that coexists with higher plants but does not form close bonds with them. It is frequently referred to as rhizosphere association because these bacteria collect plant exudate and use it as sustenance. This method is known as "associative mutualism".


3. What is the microbial source of vitamin B12?

Ans: The typical dietary sources of vitamin B12 include foods derived from animal sources, such as meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish. However, some plant-based foods, such as dried legumes and certain kinds of mushrooms, also contain significant and significant levels of vitamin B12. The brain, neurons, blood cells, and many other components of the body need vitamin B12 to operate and develop properly.

  • Only particular bacteria and archon may incorporate vitamin B12; plants cannot.

  • Through microbial interaction, the integrated vitamin B12 is transported and accumulates in animal tissues, which can occur in specific plant and mushroom species.

  • The meat and milk of herbivorous ruminant animals, such as cows and sheep, are suitable sources of vitamin B12 for humans.


4. What is the microbial source of enzyme Invertase?

Ans: The typical dietary sources of vitamin B12 include foods derived from animal sources, such as meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish. However, some plant-based foods, such as dried legumes and certain kinds of mushrooms, also contain significant and significant levels of vitamin B12. The brain, neurons, blood cells, and many other components of the body need vitamin B12 to operate and develop properly.

  • Plants cannot produce vitamin B12; only specific bacteria and archaea can. Because of microbial interactions in some plant and mushroom species, synthesized vitamin B12 is transported to and retained in animal tissues.

  • Humans can acquire enough vitamin B12 through the meat and milk of vegetarian animals, particularly cattle and sheep. Through symbiotic interactions with the bacteria in their stomachs, ruminants obtain vitamin B12, which is regarded as an essential nutrient. 

  • The majority of phytoplankton in aquatic environments obtain vitamin B12 thanks to the symbiotic attachment of bacteria, and they end up as food for fish larvae and beaver pupae.

  • Vitamin B12 is infrequently found in edible plants and mushrooms, primarily as a result of bacteria that can adapt to soil- and/or airborne surfaces.


5. Milk starts to coagulate when Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) is added to warm milk as a starter. Mention any two other benefits of LAB.

Ans: The lactic acid coagulates the milk, which then separates to form curds that are used to produce cheddar and whey. When Lactobacillus is given to warm milk as a starter, milk begins to coagulate.


The Other Two Advantages are:

  • Nutrient Enrichment: LAB increases the vitamin B12 concentration of curd, enhancing its nutrient quality.

  • Microbes: Additionally, they examine the pathogenic bacteria in our stomach. They monitor the development of harmful bacteria. 


6. Name the enzyme produced by the Streptococcus bacterium. Explain the importance of medical sciences.

Ans: The enzyme made by Streptococcus is called streptokinase. It is used as a clot-buster to get rid of clots in people who have had myocardial infarctions' blood vessels.


To dissolve blood clusters that have developed in the veins, streptokinase is used. It is used to increase calm endurance after symptoms of cardiac failure appear. This drug can also be used to treat blood clots in the legs and the lungs (aspiratory embolism) (profound venous apoplexy). Streptokinase is also used to dissolve blood clumps inside catheters, which are tubes inserted into veins.


7. What is a breed?

Ans: A breed is a particular group of domestic animals that exhibits homogenous behavior, homogeneous look (phenotype), and/or other traits that set it apart from other members of the same species.

  • Males of a particular race, species, variety, or an additional animal (or plant), keep their distinctive or special traits through inheritance.

  • Species are produced through selective breeding, genetic isolation, environmental adaptation, or a combination of these processes.

  • Application of genetic principles to horticulture, agriculture, animal husbandry, and breeding to enhance desired features The ancient farmers' choice of agriculture led to the improvement of many plants.


8. Define estuary.

Ans: Estuarine ecosystems are distinct from all others on Earth. These ecosystems are among the most prolific on Earth because rivers that produce estuaries deposit eroded materials and because estuaries may support a mix of freshwater and saltwater coming in from the ocean.

  • As a result, they produce more organic material than the majority of other ecosystems. This abundance of organic material generates an ecosystem that is rich in nutrients and provides food for animals.

  • An estuary is a body of water that is open to the ocean or a sizable lake and is situated along a coastline or beach. Estuaries form where rivers and streams, lakes, and/or the ocean converge.

  • Brackish water is created when freshwater from rivers and streams combines with saltwater from the ocean; it functions as a transitional environment from the river to the sea. 

  • A coastal estuary is subject to the same weather and tides as the ocean beyond it, but it is largely shielded from the storms, waves, and severe winds that affect the rest of the coast.


9. What is shellac?

Ans: Shellac is a substance that female lac bugs secrete on trees in the woods of Thailand and India. 

  • It is transformed into liquid shellac, which is applied as a brush-on colourant, a food glaze, and a wood finish, after being processed and marketed as dry flakes. As a durable natural primer, sanding sealer, tannin and odour blocker, stain, and high-gloss varnish, shellac also serves several other purposes.

  • The lac insect, a tiny scale insect called Laccifer lacca, produces shellac, a commercial substance sold as amber flakes (see lac). A natural thermoplastic, such as shellac, is a substance that softens and flows under pressure when heated but hardens at room temperature.

  • Due to its feature, it can be employed alone or in manufactured moulding compositions that are used to produce moulded items like buttons, together with fillers like flakes, mica, and asbestos. Abrasives, sealing wax, hair sprays, and glazes for cakes all use shellac as a component. 


Short Answer Questions

1. Many microbes are used at home during the preparation of food items. Comment on such useful ones with examples.

Ans: Swiss cheese is made using Propionibacterium shermanii, sausages are made using Pediococcus bacteria, Roquefort cheese is made using Penicillium roqueforti, and curd is made using LAB.

  • Propionibacterium Shermanii: Swiss cheese is made with the help of this microorganism. Swiss cheese has a distinctive flavour and several holes from the release of carbon dioxide during the fermentation process.

  • Lactobacillus Acidophilus (LAB): Typically, this microorganism is employed in the creation of curd. As an inoculum, milk is combined with a little amount of curd containing millions of LABS at 40 degrees Celsius. Lactose is changed by the bacterium into lactic acid, which further causes the curation of milk. Due to its high vitamin B12 content, the curd is thought to be more nutrient-dense than milk.

  • Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: In the baking industry, a unique variety of yeast is employed for the fermentation of bread dough. Due to the bacterium's release of carbon dioxide throughout the fermentation process, the volume of the dough increases. Due to the production of ethanol during the fermentation phase, the dough acquired a sour flavour.

  • Pediococcus: By fermenting beef and pig, this bacteria is employed in the making of sausages. Lactic acid, a byproduct of the bacterium that is helpful in sausage preservation, is produced by it.


2. What is biogas? Write in brief about the production process.

Ans: A methane-rich combustible gas called biogas is used to generate power, run tube wells, and for cooking. 

  • The digester in a biogas plant is where the slurry is broken down by facultative anaerobic bacteria into basic products. 

  • Organic acids are created via fermentation by bacteria. Biogas is created when methane bacteria are added to organic acid.

  • Large biogas facilities in rural areas create gobar gas. 

  • The components of a biogas plant are a digester, a 10-foot-deep seated underground concrete tank, a charging pit for slurry entry, a gas holder for collecting biogas, and a pit for sludge collection.


Creating biogas involves three steps:

  • The facultative anaerobic bacteria convert the complex organic substances in the water and cow dung slurry into simple products. Monomers are those basic products.

  • To create organic acids from monomers, fermentative microorganisms are used.

  • To create biogas, methanobacterium is added to organic acids.


3. Write a note on biocontrol agents.

Ans: As a biocontrol agent, different microorganisms including bacteria and fungi are used to get rid of weeds, insects, and pests. 

  • Brassica leaf-damaging caterpillars are killed with Bacillus thuringiensis. Baculoviruses are effective at killing some insects and arthropods. 

  • Organic farming fosters a beneficial association between numerous plant microbes, which is beneficial to the plant. Aphids and mosquitoes are killed by ladybirds and dragonflies.

  • The use of biological methods to manage different plant pests, insects, and weeds is known as biocontrol agents. 

  • Insecticides, weedicides, and pesticides, among other chemicals, were previously used to control weeds, pests, and insects. 

  • In severe circumstances, the chemicals may drain into the ground and contaminate subsurface water in addition to damaging the land.


For example

  • Bio Controlling organisms for mosquitoes and aphids include ladybirds and dragonflies.

  • A bacteria called Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) controls caterpillars on plants like fruit trees and brassicas. The toxin that is produced by this bacterium kills the insect. These bacteria spores are sprayed on plants that are at risk. The bacteria enter the insect's body as it eats a plant's leaf. Insects are killed by a toxin that is secreted in their intestines. Consider BT cotton.


4. Name any two enzymes and antibiotics with their microbial source.

Ans: Enzymes serve as a biocatalyst for metabolic reactions, whereas antibiotics are chemical agents employed to destroy disease-causing microorganisms.


Two commonly used antibiotics are penicillin and streptomycin.

  • Penicillin: It is the initial antibiotic to be found. Penicillium notatum, a fungus, is where it was isolated. This antibiotic works well against the Staphylococcus bacteria. It was applied to treat wounded soldiers during World War II. The Nobel Prize for the discovery of penicillin was given to Fleming, Florey, and Chain in 1945.

  • Streptomycin: Streptomyces griseus microorganisms are used to make it. The disease-causing pathogen's 30s ribosome is bound by this antibiotic, which prevents protein production. It has a bactericidal effect.


5. Write principles of farm management.

Ans: Some principles of farm management:

  • The law of returns helps in selecting the appropriate input type.

  • The relationship between the products is explained by the principle of combining firms.

  • The maximizing of marginal returns is stated by the law of Equi marginal returns.

Principle of Variable Proportions or Laws of Returns: This principle aids in determining the input needed to cultivate the crop. The amount of output reduces if one input is added excessively while the other inputs remain constant.


Principle of Combining Enterprises: According to this principle, relating the obtained items is preferable to combining them all.


Law of Equi Marginal Returns: This principle requires that the farmers' resources and financial aid be used effectively to generate both maximum and marginal returns.


6. Give economic importance to the fishery.

Ans: The economic importance of fishery is as follows:

  • Just a few fish species are eaten as food.

  • It offers essential oils, and vitamins A, C, and D.

  • Feeding livestock and fowl with a fish meal is common.

  • Adhesives and fertilisers both use fish waste.

  • Income and employment also come from fishing. 


7. Enlist the species of honey bee mentioning their specific uses.

Ans:  Various species of honey bees and their functions:

  • Apis Dorsata: For honey and beeswax, this species of the honey bee is extensively domesticated. It can be found in Nepal, the Terai region, and SouthEast Asia. They are renowned for their aggressive nature and defensive tactics.

  • Apis Florea: It also goes by the name "tiny bee." Among all honeybee species, it is the smallest. In hedges, shrubs, buildings, and empty cases, they construct their combs. Their skill in creating vertical combs is well known. Each year, it produces around half a kilo of honey. Because they regularly move in search of shelter, this type of honeybee cannot be raised.

  • Apis Indica: Asian bee or Indian bee are other names for it. They can be found primarily in India and a few other Asian countries. Their skill in creating parallel combs is well renowned. They produce 6 to 8 kg of honey on average every day. They are bigger than Apis Florea but smaller than Apis mellifera in size. These species frequently swarm and abscond.

  • Apis Mellifera: Italian bee or European bee are other names for it. Except for Apis dorsata, they are the biggest species of honeybee. Each day, they generate 25–40 kilograms of honey. Italian bees are less likely to swarm or flee. Because they produce more honey, many species are exported to other nations.


8. What are A, B, C, and D in the table given below:


      Types of microbe

                  Name

    Commercial Product

Fungus

A

Penicillin

Bacterium

Acetobacter aceti

C

Aspergillus niger

Citric acid

Yeast

D

Ethanol


Ans: A or Penicillium chrysogenum is a species of fungus that contributes in the manufacture of the antibiotic penicillin. This species complex, which is frequently found in salted foods, contains the P-type.

  • B is the Acetobacter aceti bacterium species' product, which is vinegar or acetic acid. They aid in the fermentation of ethanol.

  • Aspergillus niger is a member of the genus C, which is a fungus. It not only contributes to the synthesis of citric acid but also results in the "black mould" illness.

  • D stands for the S. cerevisiae yeast. It is frequently used in industry because it facilitates the inexpensive manufacturing of ethanol.


Long Answer Questions

1. Explain the process of sewage water treatment before it can be discharged into natural bodies. Why is this treatment essential?

Ans: Sewage is a type of waste material removed by a drainage system. It contains dangerous germs such as bacteria, viruses, protozoans, nematodes, and microscopic fungus as well as human excreta, domestic garbage, and dissolved organic materials. Along with these, it also contains wastewater discharges from hospitals, slaughterhouses, and animal manure, among other things.


Natural bodies like rivers and oceans contain aquatic life, and if sewage is put there untreated, it will harm both the aquatic life there as well as the underwater vegetation there.


The wastewater is appropriately cleaned in a sewage treatment plant to get rid of organic materials, inorganic salts, and pathogens before it is made available for human use.


There are four basic processes in the sewage treatment process:

1. Preliminary Treatment: Screening and the grit chamber are included in the initial treatment.

  • All of the suspended, floating, coarse, solid, and dissolving contaminants are filtered and eliminated during screening through screening chambers. 

  • Larger suspended or floating objects were removed before the biological treatment after being held back in the screening chambers.


2. Primary Treatment or Physical Treatment: The sewage water is piped into the primary sedimentation tank following the initial treatment. 

  • About 50 to 70 percent of the suspended solid or organic waste in the sedimentation tank settles down, which results in a 30 to 40 percent reduction in coliform bacteria. 

  • Primary sludge is the term for the organic material that has settled down and is removed using machinery.


3. Secondary Treatment or Biological Treatment:

The primary effluent is transferred into enormous aeration tanks after primary treatment, where it is mechanically stirred and pumped with air. Bacteria develop quickly through the aerobic process and aggregate into flocs (masses of bacteria held together by slime and fungal hyphae to form mesh-like masses).


4. Tertiary Treatment:

The wastewater is fed into a settling tank in the final stage of the treatment plant, where the bacterial flocs are permitted to settle once the BOD has been lowered. The floc sediments are known as activated sludge, and while some of it is fed back into the aeration tank, the majority of it is placed in huge tanks known as anaerobic sludge digesters. 


2. Write a note on lac culture.

Ans: Animal husbandry includes lac culture, which is the process of making lac from an insect called Tachardia lacca. It is a complicated compound made up primarily of resin and also contains sugar, water, minerals, and alkaline materials. When the resin comes into touch with air, it solidifies, creating lac, and natural lacs are typically tainted.


By washing and filtering lac, shellac is created, which is a pure form of lac. Lac production requires the intentional inoculation of plants to provide a better and more consistent supply of lac in both quantity and quality.


The manufacture of lace is economically extremely advantageous for human needs because it is utilised to make a variety of products, including toys and inks.


3. Describe various methods of fish preservation.

Ans: Fish are preserved using a variety of techniques so that they can be sold for commercial purposes. techniques such as chilling, freezing, freeze-drying, sun-drying, smoke-drying, salting, and canning.


These techniques are used to keep fish for an extended period to transport them from one location to another.


Inland fishing, marine fishing, and estuary fishing are the three divisions of fishing.


In any sort of fishery, after the fish are caught, to avoid the fish from becoming poor.


All of these techniques are beneficial for the industrial uses of fish products, such as fish meal, fertilisers, fish guano, fish glue, and isinglass, which are used in paints, soaps, oils, and medications.


4. Give an account of poultry diseases.

Ans: When there is a lack of management in the care of poultry, such as in ventilation, appropriate feed, debeaking, lighting, water, cleanliness, culling, and immunization, poultry diseases can develop.


A well-ventilated farm, correct feed, debeaking, lighting, water, cleanliness, culling, and immunization are all essential components of chicken production. Breed selection, housing, temperature control, ventilation, lighting, floor area, and broiler feed are all important aspects of managing broilers. There is a danger of contracting an illness: if these items are not taken care of.


Viral Disease:

Bronchitis, avian influenza (Bird Flu), and others. A few viral diseases, such as the avian flu, can also infect people.


Bacterial Disease:

contains enteritis, pullorum, typhoid, TB, chronic respiratory illness (CRD), etc.

Diseases caused by fungi, such as thrush, fava, and aspergillosis.

Lice infestation, roundworms, caecal worm infections, etc. are examples of parasitic disorders.


5. Give an account of mutation breeding with examples.

Ans: The sudden alteration of an organism's DNA during mutation breeding is brought on by natural mutagens such as high temperatures, high carbon dioxide concentrations, X-rays, and UV radiation. Chemical mutagens like nitrous acid and EMS can induce it (Ethyl- Methyl- Sulphonate).


For example, the Indore-2 cotton variety (resistant to bollworm), Regina-II cabbage variety (resistant to bacterial rot), and the Jagannath variety of rice are all generated through mutation breeding to acquire a desired resistant variety of plant for enhanced production of high-quality products.


EMS (Ethyl- Methyl- Sulphonate), mustard gas, colchicine, and other chemical mutagens can also be used to cause it. Seeds are exposed to CO-60 radiation, UV light, X-ray devices, etc.


6. Describe briefly various steps of plant breeding methods.

Ans: Plants are bred to have higher agricultural yields, better quality, greater resistance to environmental challenges, resistance to diseases, and greater tolerance to insect pests.


Hybridization is the primary technique for plant bleeding that provides more opportunities for agricultural improvement than other techniques. It is a useful method for fusing the desirable traits of two or more types to produce a new genetic fusion of traits that already exist and novel genetic variations.


The following are the key steps in the plant breeding process:

1. Collection of Variability: The gathering of desired features from wild species and cultivated species' relatives, followed by their preservation. The collection is known as a germplasm collection because it contains all the different alleles for every gene in a particular crop. Variety is helpful in the choosing process.


2. Evaluation and Selection of Parents: The obtained germplasm is analysed or screened in this second step, which is the most crucial step, to find the plants with suitable characteristics. To create pure or homozygous variety, the chosen parents are self-crossed for three to four generations. To ensure that only pure lines are chosen, multiplied, and utilised during the hybridization process, this is done.


3. Hybridisation: For hybridisation, the variety exhibiting the most coveted traits is chosen as the female parent (recurrent), while the alternate variety is chosen as the male parent (donor), lacking the desirable traits identified in the recurrent parent. Pollination occurs when pollen grains from the male parent's anthers are gathered and artificially dusted on the stigmas of the female parent's emasculated flowers. Following this pollination process, the production of seeds and fruits begins, and the resulting seed is an example of a hybrid generation. The hybrid offspring are chosen and assessed for the appropriate character combinations.


4. Selection and Testing of Superior Recombinants: The first hybrid plants with strong hybrid vigour that outperform both of their parents are chosen. The chosen hybrids are then self-crossed for a short period of time to make them homozygous for the desired characters until a state of uniformity is reached, preventing further character segregation.


5. Testing, Release, and Commercialization of New Cultivars: The newly chosen lines are assessed for productivity and other desired qualities, such as disease resistance, insect resistance, quality, etc., in this final step. The variety is finally made available to farmers as a new variety.


Numerous hybrid varieties of rice, wheat, sugarcane, and millets are developed through these phases in plant breeding to boost India's agricultural output.

 

Importance of Maharashtra Board Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Enhancement of Food Production

This chapter deals with the methods of food production we have developed over the years. Due to the challenges such as increasing population, food crisis, and environmental changes, we need to enhance the methods we have been following to increase productivity.


The chapter explains what food is and how it is produced. It will refer to the conventional methods we have developed and adopted to produce food. We have manipulated the natural methods of breeding in plants to create new species for food. The prime objective of these improvised breeding processes is to develop the right species that increase food quality and quantity.


The motives for the development of such breeds will be simplified and explained in the Maharashtra Board Class 12 Biology Solutions Chapter 11 Enhancement of Food Production. You will find out how the scientific approaches have changed the way we create such breeds from the parent generations and incorporate them into producing food.


Proceeding further, you will also learn the different types of hybridisation methods and realize how vivid experiments are done to develop such species. We will also learn what the green revolution is and how it was initiated.


Benefits of Chapter 11 Biology Class 12 Solutions

  • These Chapter 11 Biology Class 12 Solutions will assist you to simplify the concepts mentioned in this chapter. rest assured that the experts have followed the syllabus and have given an easier explanation of these concepts to comprehend.

  • Reduce your preparation time with these Solutions. There is no need to make short notes on all the topics you have studied in this chapter. Proceed to prepare this chapter and solve the exercise questions. Relate your answers with that of the experts to find out where you need to work more.

  • Clarify doubts on your own and make your study session more productive. With these Solutions, you can prepare this chapter well.

  • The easier and concise format of these solutions will enable you to remember the fundamental concepts, definitions, descriptions, etc faster. You can also recall them accurately during an exam and score well.


Download Enhancement in Food Production Class 12 Solutions PDF

These solutions are now available in a free PDF version. Download this file and store it on your computer.  Refer to it whenever you are studying this chapter and make your preparation stronger. Learn about the food production enhancement techniques developed and utilized across the world and stay ahead of the competition.

FAQs on Maharashtra Board Class 12 Solutions for Biology Chapter 11 Enhancement of Food Production

1. Why do we look for hybrid plant species?

Hybrid plant species are designed to get better food quality and quantity. The species are developed with the prime aim of making environment and disease-resistant crops.

2. Why should crops be disease resistant?

Crop breeds should develop resistance to common diseases so that the harvest can be of the highest quality. These breeds are developed by choosing parent species carefully and performing hybridisation.

3. What is micropropagation?

This is a scientific technique where tissue culture is used to regenerate a large number of plants by means of organogenesis. This process is used to commercially produce plants for food production and other purposes.

4. What is biofortification?

It is a process where crops are developed with the required content of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients to tackle malnutrition. 

5. What is food?

Anything consumed to grow and live is called food. Food habits vary from species to species.

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