Rainwater harvesting is the collection and storage of rainwater, instead of allowing it to flow away, for future use. The collected water is contained in percolating wells, shafts, etc. It is often used for drinking purposes and the extracted water can be used in irrigation, plantations, domestic use, etc. One of the oldest and easiest methods for storing freshwater is rainwater harvesting. Here we have provided a long speech and a short speech on rainwater harvesting for Classes 5 to 12 along with 10 lines for writing a speech on rainwater harvesting for Classes 1 to 4.
Today, I am here to deliver a speech on rainwater harvesting. The climate is constantly changing, mostly due to changes in the atmosphere, resulting in an unprecedented rate of temperature change. The length of different seasons has also been altered.
The period of the rainy season and the winter season was shortened (less than 4 months), while the summer season was increased by more than 4 months. The amount of precipitation and its groundwater recharge has also been drastically decreased. In response, the groundwater systems such as tube wells, etc. have now begun to collapse at many locations.
People do not get water for their domestic needs; it becomes difficult to plant crops; reservoirs dry up, etc. In short, the lack of water is huge. The government is spending large sums of money to combat these issues.
The harvesting of natural water (rainwater) plays a very important role in this situation, diluting the problem of water shortages.
Different methods of water harvesting have been developed, which are in use worldwide for a very long time back. "As mentioned, few of the very earliest Middle East agriculture was focused on the diversion of "wadi" flow to agricultural fields, a kind of water harvesting and irrigation recycling of harvested water.
The water harvesting systems were reported to be used in the Negev desert (Israel) around 4000 years ago or more, where water harvesting was carried out by clearing the hillsides of vegetation to increase the runoff and directing the runoff to the fields on the plains.
Similarly, from at least 1000 years ago, floodwater farming has been documented in practice in the desert regions of Arizona and north-west New Mexico. The micro-catchment technique for tree growing was identified in southern Tunisia, which was discovered by travellers Pacey and Cullis (1986) in the nineteenth century.
The "Khadin" scheme in India, in which floodwater is impounded behind earthen bunds, and crops are planted in the field based on the residual moisture content due to impounded water infiltration.
Farmers have also documented the use of conventional and small-scale water harvesting systems in sub-Saharan Africa. The method of water harvesting is documented in some West African countries by constructing a simple structure using stones. The practice of water harvesting has been documented in Sudan and the Central Rangelands of Somalia through the construction of the Bund system.
There are different advantages and uses for rainwater harvesting; however, harvesting systems have to work and maintain to ensure water quality. Water has to be distilled and filtered for use as well. Rainwater should be collected by every person, so it can be used for other occupations. The water on the surface and roof should be protected from pollution as it helps to increase the level of groundwater.
Today, I am here to deliver a speech on rainwater harvesting. Water harvesting is, in a broad sense, defined as the collection of runoff for its productive use.' It is possible to harvest rainwater (overland flow/runoff) from the roofs and ground surfaces or from intermittent or ephemeral streams (watercourses).
A variety of methods of water harvesting are available for various applications. The efficient use of harvested water includes the growth of provisions for domestic and livestock feed, the supply of crops, the processing of food and trees, and the construction of water bodies for the cultivation of fish and ducks.
Water harvesting incorporates different methods or activities focused on the use of runoff from un-cropped areas to replace the cropped areas with the harvested water.
In addition, it is also important to store water for irrigation, domestic or livestock use, but the use of harvested water for crop production is often given priority. In general, in arid and semi-arid areas where droughts occur very frequently and irrigation is not feasible, water harvesting is found to be very suitable.
While water harvesting in the area of water scare is very conducive to crop cultivation, the rate of adoption is still much lower, for the following reasons:
i. Reluctance to preserve runoff areas that are clean and weedless.
ii. High-costs participation.
iii. Strong labour requirements for building and maintaining the facilities for water harvesting.
iv. Small land availability for water-harvesting structure building.
In addition to the above factors, there are also a few important points that are likely to adversely affect water harvesting:
i. High risk of damage to crops due to long-term stagnation of the area's water.
ii. Increased risk of soil erosion and soil depletion in the catchment area.
iii. Intensive soil erosion is possible in the region.
Rainwater harvesting can also be carried out on an industrial and household basis. You can provide your own freshwater supply, reduce your water bill and make sure you never run out of water. All you need is sufficient equipment and knowledge of the rainwater harvesting process.
Rainwater Harvesting refers to the storage of rainwater in a pit or well that has been specially built for rainwater harvesting.
It is a mechanism in which the rainwater is not permitted to wash out, but is collected instead.
Rainwater irrigation, as it becomes scarce, is a way to sustain freshwater for summers.
The water obtained during the rainwater collection process is also passed through the percolation process.
Percolation is the process through which, before being processed, rainwater is passed through a natural filter system.
For many domestic and irrigation purposes, rainwater thus collected can be used.
The harvesting of rainwater also helps to recharge groundwater supplies.
Runoff water from the field is directed into specially built pits, wells, or tanks during rainwater harvesting.
The rainwater harvesting method has been used to conserve rainwater for decades.
Several ancient cities around the world were entirely dependent on rainwater harvesting.