NCERT Books Free Download for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 - Principles of Inheritance and Variation

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Principles of Inheritance and Variation Free PDF Download

Free NCERT Books download for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 - Principles of Inheritance and Variation on Vedantu. Students can also download the NCERT Textbooks Solutions in PDF for Class 6 to 12 all subjects. Register for Biology tuition to clear your doubts and score more in your exams.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 part-1

Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 NCERT Books - Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Advantages of Using The NCERT Book of Class 12 Biology For Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation

  • The NCERT book of Class 12 Biology is based on the CBSE guidelines. Also, the CBSE recommends this book for preparing Chapter 5 Principles Of Inheritance and Variation of Biology Class 12.

  • The content of the book is prepared using a simple dialect so that students can comprehend the chapter easily.

  • The professionals have explained this chapter in detail using lots of practical illustrations in this book.

  • The NCERT book also offers a summary and lots of questions at the end of the chapter.

  • The questions asked in the exam from Chapter 5 are taken directly from the NCERT book.

Topics Covered in Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Vedantu has made all NCERT books available for free for all the students. One can practice by simply downloading the books in a pdf format and go through them whenever they want! 

Now, let's have a look at the topics covered in the NCERT book Chapter 5:

1. Mendel's Laws of Inheritance

2. Inheritance Of One Gene

  • 2.1. Law Of Dominance

  • 2.2. Law Of Segregation

3. Inheritance of Two Genes

  •  3.1. Law of Independent Assortment

  •  3.2. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance

  •  3.3. Linkage and Recombination

4. Sex Determination

  • 4.1. Sex Determination in Humans

5. Mutation

6. Genetic Disorders

  • 6.1. Pedigree Analysis

  • 6.2. Mendelian Disorders

  • 6.3. Chromosomal Disorders

  7. Summary

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Where will students find the NCERT Book of Class 12 Biology Chapter 5?

The Chapter 5 of Class 12 Biology is Principle Of Inheritance and Variation. The NCERT Book for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 is available on Vedantu. Also, the NCERT Solutions of this chapter are provided by Vedantu in the form of a PDF file. Students can easily download this PDF file for free of cost from Vedantu’s website and mobile app if they want to study offline. The skilled teachers prepare the content like the NCERT questions and solutions for the NCERT Book. The language used in this book is easy to understand.

2. Point out some differences between genes and alleles.

The differences between gene and allele are discussed below:

Gene

  • The part of the DNA structure which passes the necessary information for reproduction and survival is known as a gene.

  • It is responsible for determining traits in humans

  • There are many alleles in a gene.

  • Example - eye color, skin color, hair color, etc.

Allele

  • The different variants of the gene are called alleles.

  • They define various features for a particular trait.

  • In the human body, there is a pair of alleles for a particular gene.

  • Example - hair color like brown or black 

3. Define the following terms:

  1. Co-dominance

  2. Dominance 

(1) Co-dominance - The phenomenon in which two genes of equal dominance are taken together and are equally expressed is known as co-dominance.


Example - The blood group alleles IA and IB are dominant over IO. These alleles are taken together and are equally expressed to form the phenotype AB.


(2) Dominance - It is defined as the phenomenon in an individual in which one allelic form of a gene is expressed to the exclusion of the other allelic form.


Example - In the cross-breeding of the tall and short pea plant, the tall character is dominant over the dwarf character in the F1 generation.

4. What are the advantages of selecting the pea plant in Mendel's experiment?

The benefits of selecting the pea plant for Mendel's experiment are as follows:

  • The availability of many varieties of pea plants as alternative forms for a trait can be seen.

  • There is a phenomenon of self-pollination in peas.

  • Pea plants are easily available.

  • They always show true-breeding as pure lines can be seen for experimental purposes.

  • They can produce a large number of offspring.

  • The life cycle of pea is short.

  • It can be easily grown as it requires care at the time of pollination only.

5. Differentiate between the homozygous and heterozygous individuals.

The difference between the two are: Homozygous Individual

  • It is a genetic condition in which an individual inherits the same alleles of a gene from both parents.

  • The two different phenotypes are dominant and recessive.

  • The result of a homozygous genotype is a single type of gamete.

  • There is no phenomenon of hybrid vigor in homozygous conditions.

Heterozygous Individual

  • An individual inherits different alleles of a gene from both parents in a heterozygous condition.

  • There is only a dominant phenotype.

  • The result of a heterozygous genotype is two different types of gametes.

  • There is a phenomenon of hybrid vigor in heterozygous conditions.

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