The arena of physics deals with the absolute laws that regulate the whole universe. Several of the greatest names in this discipline contains Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and Niels Bohr, just to name a few. Their contributions along with the vital discoveries of others have given us a superior understanding of our world. Here is a list that contains some of the most well-known physicists throughout history in order of the notoriety of their work.
Isaac Newton (1643-1727)
A key contributor to the science of optics and an extraordinary mathematician and Co-founder of calculus, Isaac Newton, who was born in Lincolnshire, defined the laws of mechanics that now underpin massive swaths of conventional physics. Most essential of all, Newton defined the principle of gravity, which described how the planets revolve around the sun. During his life, he was poured with honors, including the presidency of the Royal Society. He is well-known as a supreme rationalist, though he actually wrote more about alchemy and religion.
Niels Bohr (1885-1962)
Born in Copenhagen developed the modern concept of an atom, which has a nucleus at the center with electrons revolving around it. When electrons travel from one energy level to another, they release discrete quanta of energy. This work won Bohr a Nobel prize in 1922. In 1954, Bohr assisted in establish Cern, the European particle physics facility. In 1975, his son, Aage, won a Nobel for a study on atomic nuclei
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Born in Pisa, he was originally trained as a doctor. On hearing of the invention of the telescope in 1609, he constructed his own and twisted it to the heavens, unraveling the presence of sunspots and a bumpy, mountainous surface on the Lunar (moon): the heavens were not moral. His research also delivered support for the idea that the Earth revolves around the sun. This got Galileo into significant trouble with the Catholic church and he was enforced to abandon that backing in 1633. His study on falling bodies also laid the foundation for Newton’s subsequent theories.
Three great philosophies outlined our physical knowledge of the universe: relativity, gravitation, and quantum mechanics. The first is the work of German-born Albert Einstein, who remains the physicist with the utmost reputation for innovation of thought. His work displayed that space and time are absolute and are malleable and fluid. Einstein, who applied for US citizenship in 1940, also delivered the world with its most well-known equation, E=mc2, which exhibits the equivalence of mass and energy. His name has turn into synonymous with the idea of genius and he died as a celebrity. He was given the 1921 Nobel prize for physics.
James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79)
In compare to Newton and Einstein, Edinburgh-born Maxwell is almost unknown to the common public. Yet his contribution to physics was every bit as important, mainly his discovery of the theory on electromagnetism. This displayed that electricity, light, and magnetism are all manifestations of a similar phenomenon, the electromagnetic field. The progress of radio, TV, and radar were the direct significances. Maxwell also passed out groundbreaking work in optics and color vision. On the other hand, in his late years, his God-fearing Scottish upbringing carried him into the dispute with the evolutionary thinking of Darwin and others biologist and he wrote papers disapproving natural selection.
Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
Mainly self-educated, Faraday turns out into one of the utmost scientists of his day thanks to the backing of the eminent English chemist Humphry Davy, who employed him as an assistant in 1813. Faraday went on to establish electromagnetic induction and discovered the concept of the electromagnetic field and the laws of electrolysis. His electromagnetic devices made the groundwork of electric motor machinery. He twice rejected proposals of a knighthood and when asked to advise on chemical weapons for the Crimean conflict, rejected on ethical grounds. Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall (together with pictures of Newton and Maxwell).
Marie Curie (1867-1934)
The first woman scientist to earn a Nobel and the first person to win two distinct Nobels, Curie was born in Poland and won her first Nobel in 1903 along with husband, Pierre, for finding out radioactivity. But, she was not allowed to contribute to the keynote lecture winners give since she was a woman. After her husband Pierre died in a road accident in 1906, she won her second Nobel in 1911 for finding out radium, though an attempt was made to withdraw it when news emerged of her affair with married associate Paul Langevin. After collecting the prize, Curie was humiliated by the French press. Langevin was also ignored.
Richard Feynman (1918-88)
One of the top leading and colorful physicists, Feynman played a key part in the expansion of quantum electrodynamics, the theory that defines how light and matter interrelate, making him a Nobel prize winner in 1965. Feynman also contributed to the fields of nanotechnology and quantum computing and was an associate of the Rogers Commission that criticized Nasa over the demolition of space shuttle Challenger in 1986. He was an intense drummer, experimented with drugs and often worked on physics numerical in topless bars because he said they helped him concentrate
Rutherford born in New Zealand is considered one of the greatest of all experimental physicists. He finds out the idea of radioactive half-life and showed that radioactivity involved in the transformation of one chemical element to another. He was presented a Nobel in 1908 “for his studies into the disintegration of the elements”. He then joined the Cambridge University where he was the director of the Cavendish Laboratory where, in his leadership, the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932 and the first experiment to divide the nucleus was passed out by John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton. The compound rutherfordium was named after him in 1997.
Paul Dirac (1902-84)
One of the most respected – and weirdest – figures in physics. The son English mother and of Swiss father, Dirac was born in Bristol (U.K). He anticipated the presence of antimatter, made some of quantum mechanics’ important equations and laid the groundwork for today’s micro-electronics business. Dirac won a Nobel in 1933 but continued “an Edwardian geek”, conferring to biographer Graham Farmelo. He rejected down a knighthood because he didn’t want societies using his first name, while his daughter, Monica, never once recalled him laughing. “This balancing on the dizzying path between madness and genius is unpleasant,” Einstein said of him.
Stephen Hawking (1942)
Famous For: Enlightening Black holes and Progress on Quantum mechanics and the General Theory of Relativity. Stephen is recognized for his scientific works with Roger Penrose, for which they delivered a theory for the foundation of general relativity, this is also known as the “gravitational singularities theorem”. In 1978, Hawking honored with the Albert Einstein Award, given to those who shined in natural sciences, more precisely, theoretical physics.
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)
Famous For: Made the first Alternating Current system (AC)
Nikola Tesla is also known for his contribution in the advance and use of alternating current (AC) system. He operated briefly with Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse. His research on high voltage electricity enlarged him further notoriety.
Famous For: Development of the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics. Established absolute thermometric scale. He is also known for expressing the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics. The quantity of absolute temperatures has been named after him. He coined the term “kinetic energy”.
J.J. Thomson (1856-1940)
Famous For: Display the existence of the electron Joseph John (J.J.) Thomson is recognized for the identification of the isotopes and electron. During one of his tests, Thomson was able to recognize a negatively charged particle which turns out to be as the electron.
Robert Hooke (1635-1703)
Famous For: Describing Hooke’s Law of Elasticity
Robert Hooke is recognized for the physics standard that is the law of elasticity, which is also known as Hooke’s Law. He made one of the earliest reflecting telescopes.
Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961)
Famous For: Wide-ranging Advancements on Quantum mechanics and the Schrodinger equation. Erwin Schrodinger is recognized for his influence to the world of physics in which he describes what is identified as wave mechanics, it turns into as the Schrodinger equation. He also delivered answers for the diatomic molecule, the rigid rotor, and the quantum harmonic oscillator
Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)
Famous For: Research on the Uncertainty Principle and Quantum Mechanics.
Werner Karl Heisenberg is recognized for the matrix formulation used in quantum mechanics. The Heisenberg principle, or also known as the “uncertainty principle” in quantum mechanics, became vital to the field of physics in clarifying inequalities in outcomes from physical properties.
Alessandro Volta (1745-1827)
Famous For: Creating the first electric battery, Alessandro Volta is well-known for and recognized for the discovery of methane and making the initial known form of the battery in the 18th century. The “battery” was prepared of copper and zinc, with sulfuric acid used to complete the circuit.