Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
Store Icon

Maharashtra Board Class 12 Solutions for English Chapter 2.8: Small Towns and Rivers

Last updated date: 17th Apr 2024
Total views: 156.6k
Views today: 1.56k

Download Free PDF with Solutions of Small Towns and Rivers Class 12, Chapter 2.8

Maharashtra Board students of Class 12 have a very important chapter in Maharashtra Board syllabus called Small Towns and Rivers. The concepts are explained in detail in this chapter. Students can gain more details about solving Small Towns and Rivers questions and the different formulas and techniques used for that. In order to delve deeper into the topic, download the practice set Chapter 2.8 Class 12 English

In order to solve the questions of the chapter, students will have to practice a lot and grasp the importance and details of the chapter. This is where the solutions crafted by Vedantu experts can come into action. Students can practice using these solutions, and hence they don’t have to miss out on important details.

Access Maharashtra Board Solutions for English Class 12 Chapter 2.8 Small Towns and Rivers

Ice Breakers

(i) Most of the civilizations have flourished on the banks of the rivers. Discuss the reasons in the class. One is done for you.

(a) Availability of water




Ans: Do it yourself

(ii) Write down the names of the famous cities that are situated on the banks of the rivers given below. One is done for you.










Ans: Do it yourself.

(iii) Write down the names of the rivers on the banks of which following cities

have prospered:





New York


Ans: Do it yourself.

(i) Divide your class into groups and discuss the changes that might have taken place when the cities grow on the banks of the rivers.

Ans: Do it yourself.

(ii) Share your views in the class on the topic ‘Conservation of Rivers and Development of the Cities.’

Ans: Do it yourself


(A1) Discuss the importance of Nature in the lives of the people from the Northeastern part of India as expressed in the poem with reference to-

  1. Flowers

  2. River

  3. Bamboo

  4. East


  1. Flowers: As a sign of love and respect, garlands made of tuberoses are placed on the deceased's body. 

  2. River: The locals think the river is alive. They venerate their rivers as being heavenly since their waters never run dry. 

  3. Bamboo: In the cool bamboo, the poet writes. It has a cool green hue. It is also cool where the bamboo grows. And the bamboo is also used to build the structural site for burial of someone dead.

  4. East: For the people of Arunachal Pradesh, the direction of sunrise is crucial. They make sure that the deceased is positioned facing west so that their souls can pass right through to the golden east of the sun. They believe that in the end, souls must arrive at the east, the home of the sun.


(i) The poet has described her small town in Arunachal Pradesh. Pick out the lines that describe the poet's town.


The lines that describe the poet's town are: 

  1. "My hometown is peacefully tucked away among the trees, and it never changes"

  2. "With the wind howling down the gorge or the dust whirling in the summer and winter"

(ii) Make a list of natural elements mentioned in the poem.

Ans: The list of natural elements mentioned in the poem are: trees, dust, winter, summer, wind, tuberoses, life, land, river, mist, mountaintops, rain, earth  fish and stars.

(iii) 'The river has a soul.' Elaborate the concept in your words as the poet has explained it in the poem.

Ans: The poet signifies the river when she states, "The river has a soul." The river is moving rapidly, "like a torrent of sorrow." A person releasing their agony in emotion could be compared to a river flowing with immense force. The river also appears to be holding its breath, perhaps as a result of the trash that is suffocating it. Fish are not present. It is not dazzling and clear. I believe it holds its breath while searching for a land of fish and stars, the poet claims.

(iv) The poet is convinced with the thought of immortality of water. Pick out the relevant lines.

  1. ..................................

  2. ..................................

  3. .……………………………..

Ans: The three lines from the poem that shows the immortality of water are: 

‘The river has a soul’

'From the first drop of rain to dry earth'

'And mist on the mountaintops'

“the river knows the immortality of water.”

(v) The poet has used some unconventional expressions. Illustrate them in your words.

  1. Torrent of grief

  2. Shrine of happy pictures

  3. The land of fish and stars

Ans: The unconventional expressions are illustrated below: 

(a). Torrent of grief

The poet explains how quickly the river flows in the summer. The force of the water seems to be like the outpouring of the sorrow of the river, just as someone gets emotional in profound despair.

(b). Shrine of happy pictures

Ans: The poet describes her early years as a perfect time filled with wonderful recollections.

(c). The land of fish and stars

Ans: When the "river with soul" learns that it has turned into a torrent of grief for humanity, it speaks of the perfect world it longs to inhabit.

(vi) The poet is anxious about the existence of the natural beauty of her town in the future. But she touches the strings of the hearts while appealing to conserve the Nature. Explain the way she has expressed it in the first and the last line of the poem.

Ans: The poet claims that small towns serve as memories of death for her in the first line of her poem, "Small Towns Always Remind Me of Death." Her tone is sombre as she considers how tiny communities will always exist, whether it's summer or winter, and she contrasts this with how death will always exist.

She does, however, urge the reader to think favourably of the need to maintain nature in the final line, "In little towns by the river/ we all wish to stroll with the gods," since we, the residents of the riverbank small towns, all want to live a great life. We all desire to "walk with the gods," to put it another way. Thus, from the opening to the concluding words, the tone changes from one of anxiety to one of optimism.

(vii) The poet has connected the need to preserve Nature with the belief of a particular community and her childhood memories. Write down the measures you would take to convince the people regarding the need to conserve the Nature.

Ans: We need to help the general public understand that we are interconnected with nature, not separate from it. To realize this, I can address my steps in two different sections. 

  • Saving nature means saving ourselves. Children would come first. Saving water should be the first lesson taught to kids. Children's brains can easily be opened to the concepts of conservation through story-telling, poetry, songs, games, and cartoons. I would strive to propagate these concepts among children by going to schools, parks, and shopping centers.

  • And of course, for the adult population, at all economic and social levels, makes up the other segment. The grown ups need to realize that their children and the future generations deserve nature in bountiful as they did in their childhood. I would invoke in them their memories of childhood that was spent in the luxury of nature which will motivate them to take steps consciously towards conservation. I promise to exert every effort. I'll disseminate different messages and mottos using social media.


(i) Write down the expressions related to 'the seasons' from the poem.


  1. Summer

  2. Winter

  3. Wind howling

  4. Dust flying

  5. Dry earth

  6. Mist on the loountaintops

  7. First drop of rain

(ii) Match column 'A' with column 'B'.

A                                                         B

Cool                                                Silence

Happy                                             Earth

Dreadful                                         Bamboo

Dry                                                 Pictures

Ans: The correct matches are: 

  1. Cool- Bamboo

  2. Happy- Pictures

  3. Dreadful-  Silence

  4. Dry- Earth


(i) Read the expression 'a sad wreath of tuberoses. 'Is the wreath sad?' Explain the figure of speech.

Ans: The metaphor is a transferred epithet. The wreath of tuberoses has been laid on the deceased by the mournful mourners. For effect, the flowers have been given the feeling of melancholy.

(ii) List and explain the metaphorical expressions from the poem. For example, 'torrent of grief.'


  1. "Torrent of sadness," says one.  The river moves quickly, as though it were spewing forth its anguish.

  2. Wind screaming down the gorge, line two. The sound of howling is exactly what the wind sounds like as it blows through the small gorges.

  3. "The water has a soul," the river is described as a person, a living thing.

  4. It exhales slowly. The river can be choked with trash and sludge.

(iii) 'The river has a soul.'

'Life and death.'

These are the two expressions that are repeated in the poem, but both of them indicate different figures of speech. Find out and discuss.


(a). ‘Life and death'

It is employed as an antithesis in the first instance to emphasise the beginning and conclusion. The irony is used in the second situation to show that neither life nor death is final. Ironically, the rituals remain ongoing. The figure of speech sed here of two opposite ideas is the antithesis. 

(b) ‘The river has a soul’

In the first instance, the river is personified using it. The river is said to have certain characteristics shared by humans,

  • it pierces the landscape

  • my anguish is erupting in cascades

  • it exhales slowly

  • it looks for a land

(iv) Find out the beauty of the free verse reflected in this poem.

Ans: Reading the poem is almost like telling a narrative because the lines' lengths vary and there is no rhyme. There is no particular order in which the short and long lines should be mixed; each stanza has a varied amount of lines. We sense some flexibility because the poetry is not constrained by a clear rhythm. We are allowed to picture a wide-ranging scene in which a town by a river is surrounded by mountains and rivers, mists, and golden sunlight.


 (i) Prepare the arguments for group discussion on the topic -

'A balanced progress never harms Nature.'


Arguments in favour of the topic:

  • It should be planned for growth to occur in stages.

  • Planning is essential for growth.

  • It's important to ensure sustainability.

  • Environmental harm has pros and downsides that need to be assessed.

  • Short-term advancements must not come at the expense of long-term eco-factors.

Arguments Against the Topic:

  • Growth cannot be stopped because of environmental concerns.

  • Delays will result in higher costs.

  • Progress will be slowed by delays in both jobs and the economy.

  • The public will protest due to the economy's slowdown.

  • One cannot have their cake and eat it too; sacrifices must be made.

(ii) Compose 4 to 6 lines on 'Gift of the Seasons'.


Gift of the Seasons

Each season brings a sweetly wrapt gift;

Constantly reminding us the seasonal change swift.

We can gift her back: no water pollution 

In the season of the Sun.

No air pollution when

The rains come down.

And no degradation the rest of the year!

(iii) Write an appreciation of the poem 'Small Towns and Rivers'. Refer to the earlier poems for the points to be covered for appreciation.

Ans: Mamang Dai's poem "Small Towns and Rivers" is a lovely word picture. The poet also laments the loss of her lovely native country, Arunachal Pradesh.

This subject, that small towns make her think of death, is evident in the manner the poet opens the poem. It shocks me. She makes the implication that the town remains unchanged no matter the weather, but growth alters everything. Irony exists in the fact that the cycle of life and death demonstrates how transient life is but rituals endure.

She suggests through metaphor that the rivers are genuinely immortal in addition to being alive like us. She personifies the river by describing how it is choking and "holds its breath." It is moving in search of a location where it can move freely and unhindered. The poet utilises the water cycle as a metaphor to show that the river has a soul and that its waters are eternal.

With the help of a "shrine of happy" childhood memories, the poet creates a climax. This results in maturing—"growing with anxiety." Then she describes how the dead are positioned such that they are facing west, allowing the soul to climb directly into the golden abode of the sun in the east. This reveals customs unique to her area.

The poem is in free verse and appears to be written in simple language, yet it takes more than one reading to fully grasp its depth of meaning. The poem laments the ruin of the natural world for human advancement. When we read about how nature's beauty is harmed by man's avarice, which is dubbed "progress," we will all share the poet's grief.

(iv) Write a dialogue between two friends on 'Importance of the rivers'.

Ans: Priya: Jai, it should go without saying that both nature and humanity depend on access to clean, fresh water to exist. For people throughout the world, rivers are incredibly valuable sources of fresh drinking water. It can mean the difference between life and death when rivers are so severely contaminated by industry or by poor water management techniques. Unfortunately, this occurs everywhere.

Jai: Yes, Priya. Some of the world's highest biodiversity can be found in freshwater settings, and rivers represent a key, thriving ecology for many species. Only people who reside near rivers are aware of this wealth of natural resources. Those who live a long way away and poison their systems do not know.

Priya: People's way of existence and means of subsistence depend on rivers. The way our rivers are handled has a direct impact on people's livelihoods, from fishing to agriculture. Millions of individuals continue to live and work in the manner that their predecessors did. But the fundamental source of these has been destroyed by contemporary technology.

Jai: Rivers are vitally essential for the environment, human livelihoods, and access to clean drinking water. Sadly, they continue to be in danger. For people and nature to flourish, we must dedicate ourselves to restoring freshwater biodiversity, restoring natural river flows, and cleaning up dirty water.

Priya: Sure Jai. I agree. It is today's most urgent requirement.


(i) Collect information about rivers in Maharashtra.

Ans: The following advice is available to the pupils. One has been completed for you as a source.

Maharashtra's principal rivers are:

  • Godavari: a 1456 km river with its source in Trimbakeshwar, it travels through the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh before emptying into the Bay of Bengal.

  • Krishna

  • Narmada

  • Koyna \sMula-mutha

  • Nira \sPavana

  • Patalganga

  • Ulhas \Vaitarna \sWainganga

(ii) Further reading :

'The River Poems' - Mamang Dai

'The World Is Too Much With Us' - William Wordsworth

Ans: This is an activity-based question, students are advised to do it by themselves. 

Importance of Maharastra Board textbook solutions for Class 12 English Small Towns and Rivers

The class 12 Chapter 2.8, titled Small Towns and Rivers for Maharashtra board students, includes all the important details about number progressions and sequences. Students will learn what arithmetic progressions are and how are they represented. The chapter also provides an introduction to the common difference between the consecutive numbers in the progression. Students will be introduced to the General Form of an Arithmetic Progression. The chapter also introduces the concepts of the First Term to the students.

1. Access to Solutions by Experts: Getting guidance and learning from experts who have curated the answers that focus on learning standards specific to the age group. It also provides well explained and easy to understand solutions for a student.

2. Beneficial for Resolving Doubts: Sometimes, questions asked in the chapter become challenging to comprehend, especially for students who find English difficult. The textbook solutions can present them with elaborative and comprehensive answers or solutions which will benefit them in case of doubts.

3. Learning Through Mistakes: When a student is trying to solve a question, it is often observed that they get the correct answers but do not follow the proper method. In such cases, textbook solutions can help them understand the experts' approach, which they can use while finding the answers.

4. Practice with the right approach: Practicing the questions by following correct methods and techniques becomes significant for a student. These practice questions become the building blocks for their further question-solving practice. Hence, it is crucial to solving many questions based on a concept with the right approach.

Benefits of using Vedantus' PDF Solutions for Class 12 English Maharashtra Board

  • Small Towns and Rivers is a chapter that demands a thorough understanding of the concepts and details. With the solutions for the chapter, students can properly understand the chapter and its contents in it.

  • The practice sets and the solutions have been carefully crafted by some of the learned experts at Vedantu, who are well-versed in the concepts of Small Towns and Rivers.

  • Students can use the solutions to practice more and gain a better understanding of the chapter. This is also going to be a great help during the examinations, and they can score high marks if any questions are asked from this chapter.

  • The practice set Small Towns and Rivers Class 12 English for Maharashtra Board students acts as a fantastic way to revise any concepts that might be doubtful for students. They can solve the questions and easily cross-check if their answers are correct.

Excel in Your Preparation With Maharashtra Board Class 12 English Chapter 2.8 Solutions

Download and study from Maharashtra board class 12 English solutions chapter 2.8 Small Towns and Rivers practice and see the benefits. You will gain a deeper understanding of the chapter and its contents. You will also be able to memorize all the formulas and use them to solve problems from the chapter. Download the PDF version from Vedantu right now.