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What is the difference between solvation and hydration?

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Last updated date: 23rd Apr 2024
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Answer
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Hint: A solute has mainly two-component, solute and solvent. Solvation and hydration both the terms are both related to the bonding of solute and solvent particles in a solution.

Complete Step by Step Solution:
The phenomenon of association and attraction of molecules of any solvent with ions or molecules of a solute is known as solvation. When ions get dissolved in a solvent, they become spread out and get surrounded by molecules of solvent. The bigger the size of the ion, the more the capacity to surround the ion by solvent molecules and the more it becomes solvated.

In the process of salvation, the attractive forces present among the particles are Dipole-dipole forces, hydrogen bonding, and London dispersion. If the force of attraction between solute and solvent is greater than the attractive force that holds the solutes together, then the solute dissolves in the solvent.

The above phenomenon is termed hydration if water is the solvent. So, the hydration process is the association and attraction of water molecules with ions or molecules of a solute. For example, with the addition of Sodium chloride to water, as sodium ion is positively charged; they are surrounded by molecules of water through their oxygen ends. And as the chloride ions are negatively charged, they are surrounded by molecules of water through the hydrogen ends.

Note: In the cationic hydration, the lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atom is attached to the cation and in anionic hydration, there is the attachment of anion to water molecules via hydrogen bonding.