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**Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations** is a fascinating and essential topic in mathematics. Every year, at least 1 to 3 problems from this chapter appear in IIT JEE and other exams. The concept of this chapter will be used in many other chapters, such as functions and coordinate geometry.

Begin by grasping fundamental ideas such as the definition of a complex number, integral powers of iota, and various representations of a complex number. Then go on to complex number algebra. The Argand plane, modulus, and argument of a complex number, as well as the triangle, are all fundamental concepts. Go over the concepts of solved problems again, and then do the same with the quadratic equation. Refer to the **complex numbers and quadratic equations Class 11 solutions **provided by Vedantu and download the complex numbers and quadratic equations Class 11 PDF to prepare for the exams.

Algebra of complex numbers

Properties of complex numbers

Modulus and conjugate of a complex numbers

Argument of complex number

Polar form of complex numbers

Euler's Formula and De Moiver’s Theorem

Geometry of Complex Numbers

Cube root of unity

Vector representation and rotation of complex numbers

Nature of roots (in quadratic equations), the relation of coefficient and roots

Transformation of quadratic equations and condition of common roots

The discriminant of quadratic equations

A complex number is one that can be written as p + iq, where p and q are real values and i represents a solution to the x2-1 equation.

$\sqrt{i}=-1$ or, i2 = -1.

Some of the examples of complex numbers are: 8 – 2i, 2 +31i, etc, and the Complex numbers are denoted by ‘z’.

The general form of the complex number is z=p+iq

Here,

p is known as the real part and is denoted by Re z.

q is known as the imaginary part and it is denoted by Im z.

If z = 12 + 35i, then the value Re z = 12 and Im z = 35. If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers such that z1 = p + iq and z2 = r + is , z1 and z2 are equal if p = r and q = s.

Consider the complex number z = x + iy. The modulus (absolute values) of z is thus defined as the positive square root of the sum of the squares of the real and imaginary parts, indicated by |z| i.e. $|\text{z}|=\sqrt{{x^2}+{y^2}}$

It represents the distance of z from the origin in the set of complex number c, where the order relation is not defined

i.e. z1 > z2 or z1 < z2 has no meaning but when |z1| > |z2| or |z1|<|z2| has got its meaning since |z1| and |z2| are the real numbers.

Any complex number z = x + iy can be represented geometrically by a point (x, y) in a plane, called the argand plane or gaussian plane. A purely number x, i.e. (x + 0i) is represented by the point (x, 0) on the x-axis. Therefore, the x-axis is called the real axis. A purely imaginary number iy i.e. (0 + iy) is represented by the point (0, y) on the y-axis. Therefore, the y-axis is known as the imaginary axis.

The angle made by a line joining point z to the origin, with the positive direction of the x-axis in an anti-clockwise sense is called the argument or amplitude of a complex number. It is denoted by the symbol arg(z) or amp(z).

arg(z) = θ = $\tan^{-1}\left ( \dfrac{x}{y} \right )$

Image: Argument of complex number

The argument of z is not unique, and its general value of the argument of z is 2nπ + θ, but arg(0) is not defined. The unique value of θ such that -π < θ ≤ π is called the principal value of the amplitude or principal argument.

if x > 0 and y > 0, then arg(z) = θ.

if x < 0 and y > 0, then arg(z) = π – θ.

if x < 0 and y < 0, then arg(z) = -(π – θ).

if x > 0 and y < 0, then arg(z) = -θ.

If z = x + iy is a complex number, then z = |z| (cosθ + i sinθ), where θ = arg(z). This is called polar form. If the general value of the argument is θ, then the polar form of z is z = |z| [cos (2nπ + θ) + i sin(2nπ + θ)], where n is an integer.

A quadratic equation is a second-degree equation. The general form of the quadratic equation is ax2+bx+c = 0, where a, b, c are real numbers and a ≠ 0. For example, x2+2x+1 = 0.

An algebraic expression with several terms is called a polynomial. A polynomial of degree two of the form ax2+bx+c (a≠0) is called a quadratic expression in x. When a quadratic polynomial f(x) is equated to zero, we can term it a quadratic equation.

The quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 with real coefficients has two roots given by $\dfrac{-b+\sqrt{D}}{2a}$ and $\dfrac{-b-\sqrt{D}}{2a}$, where D = b2 – 4ac, called the discriminant of the equation.

Note:

(i) When D = 0, roots are real and equal. When D > 0 roots are real and unequal. Further, if a,b, c ∈ Q and D is a perfect square, then the roots of the quadratic equation are real and unequal and if a, b, c ∈ Q and D is not a perfect square, then the roots are irrational and occur in pairs. When D < 0, the roots of the equation are non-real (or complex).

(ii) Let α, β be the roots of quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, then the sum of roots α + β =$\dfrac{-b}{a}$ and the product of roots αβ = $\dfrac{c}{a}$.

1. Express the question in the form of a + bi: $\left ( -5i \right )\left ( \dfrac{1}{8}i \right )$

Solution: $\left ( -5i \right )\left ( \dfrac{1}{8}i \right )$

Solving the above equation, we get:

= $\left ( \dfrac{-5}{8} i^2 \right )$ = $\left ( \dfrac{-5}{8} (-1) \right )$ = $\left ( \dfrac{5}{8}\right )$

Now, write the final answer in the form of a+ib

=$\left ( \dfrac{5}{8}+0i\right )$

Question 2: (cos θ + i sin θ)4 / (sin θ + i cos θ)5 is equal to ____________.

Solution:

(cos θ + i sin θ)4 / (sin θ + i cos θ)5

= (cos θ + i sin θ)4 / i5 ([1 / i] sin θ + cos θ)5

= (cosθ + i sin θ)4 / i (cos θ − i sin θ)5

= (cos θ + i sin θ)4 / i (cos θ + i sin θ)−5 (By property) = 1 / i (cos θ + i sin θ)9

= sin(9θ) − i cos (9θ).

Question 1: If z is a complex number, then the minimum value of |z| + |z − 1| is ______.

Solution:

First, note that |−z|=|z| and |z1 + z2| ≤ |z1| + |z2|

Now |z| + |z − 1| = |z| + |1 − z| ≥ |z + (1 − z)|

= |1|

= 1

Hence, minimum value of |z| + |z − 1| is 1.

Question 2: Find the complex number z satisfying the equations $\dfrac{\left | z-12 \right |}{\left | z-8i \right |}=\dfrac{8}{3}$, $\dfrac{\left | z-4 \right |}{\left | z-8 \right |}=1$

Solution:

We have

$\dfrac{\left | z-12 \right |}{\left | z-8i \right |}=\dfrac{8}{3}$,

$\dfrac{\left | z-4 \right |}{\left | z-8 \right |}=1$

Let z = x + iy, then

$\dfrac{\left | z-12 \right |}{\left | z-8i \right |}=\dfrac{8}{3}$

⇒ 3|z − 12| = 5 |z − 8i|

3 |(x − 12) + iy| = 5 |x + (y − 8) i|

9 (x − 12)2 + 9y2 = 25x2 + 25 (y − 8)2 ….(i) and

$\dfrac{\left | z-4 \right |}{\left | z-8 \right |}=1$

⇒ |z − 4| = |z − 8|

|x − 4 + iy| = |x − 8 + iy|

(x − 4)2 + y2 = (x − 8)2 + y2

⇒ x = 6

Putting x = 6 in (i), we get y2 − 25y + 136 = 0

y = 17, 8

Hence, z = 6 + 17i or z = 6 + 8i

Question 3: If the cube roots of unity are 1, ω, ω2, find the roots of the equation (x − 1)3 + 8 = 0.

Solution:

(x − 1)3 = −8 ⇒ x − 1 = (−8)1/3

x − 1 = −2, −2ω, −2ω2

x = −1, 1 − 2ω, 1 − 2ω2

Practise Questions

1. The area of the triangle with vertices A(z), b(iz) and, c(z+iz) is

a. 1

b. $\dfrac{1}{2}$|z|2

c. $\dfrac{1}{2}$

d. $\dfrac{1}{2}$ |z+iz|2

Answer: 1-b

2. Let a complex number be $W=1-\sqrt{3}i$. Let another complex number z be |zw|=1 such that and arg(z)-arg(w) = $\dfrac{\pi}{2}$. The area of the triangle with vertices origin, and is equal to:

a. 4

b. $\dfrac{1}{2}$

c. $\dfrac{1}{4}$

d. 2

Answer: 2-b

Students will learn about** JEE Mathematics complex number and quadratic equations **by reading the articles. They will know about its wide range of applications in real-life problems. For example, in physics, when dealing with a circuit involving capacitors and inductance, we use complex numbers to find the circuit's impedance. To do so, we use complex numbers to represent the capacitor and inductance quantities responsible for the contribution of impedance. Students can also gain a thorough understanding of the concept by working through the solved problems and examples. Visit Vedantu’s website and refer to Class 11 Maths Chapter 5 miscellaneous exercise solutions, NCERT solutions for class 11 Maths Chapter 5, complex numbers and quadratic equations Class 11 solutions and download complex numbers and quadratic equations Class 11 PDF to be better prepared.

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JEE Main 2023 January and April Session exam dates and revised schedule have been announced by the NTA. JEE Main 2023 January and April Session will now be conducted on 24-Jan-2023 to 31-Jan-2023 and 6-Apr-2023 to 12-Apr-2023, and the exam registration closes on 12-Jan-2023 and Apr-2023. You can check the complete schedule on our site. Furthermore, you can check JEE Main 2023 dates for application, admit card, exam, answer key, result, counselling, etc along with other relevant information.

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Application Form

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Exam Centres

NTA has announced the JEE Main 2023 January session application form release date on the official website https://jeemain.nta.nic.in/. JEE Main 2023 January and April session Application Form is available on the official website for online registration. Besides JEE Main 2023 January and April session application form release date, learn about the application process, steps to fill the form, how to submit, exam date sheet etc online. Check our website for more details. April Session's details will be updated soon by NTA.

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It is crucial for the the engineering aspirants to know and download the JEE Main 2023 syllabus PDF for Maths, Physics and Chemistry. Check JEE Main 2023 syllabus here along with the best books and strategies to prepare for the entrance exam. Download the JEE Main 2023 syllabus consolidated as per the latest NTA guidelines from Vedantu for free.

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JEE Main 2023 Study Materials: Strengthen your fundamentals with exhaustive JEE Main Study Materials. It covers the entire JEE Main syllabus, DPP, PYP with ample objective and subjective solved problems. Free download of JEE Main study material for Physics, Chemistry and Maths are available on our website so that students can gear up their preparation for JEE Main exam 2023 with Vedantu right on time.

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Download JEE Main Question Papers & Answer Keys of 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018 and 2017 PDFs. JEE Main Question Paper are provided language-wise along with their answer keys. We also offer JEE Main Sample Question Papers with Answer Keys for Physics, Chemistry and Maths solved by our expert teachers on Vedantu. Downloading the JEE Main Sample Question Papers with solutions will help the engineering aspirants to score high marks in the JEE Main examinations.

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In order to prepare for JEE Main 2023, candidates should know the list of important books i.e. RD Sharma Solutions, NCERT Solutions, RS Aggarwal Solutions, HC Verma books and RS Aggarwal Solutions. They will find the high quality readymade solutions of these books on Vedantu. These books will help them in order to prepare well for the JEE Main 2023 exam so that they can grab the top rank in the all India entrance exam.

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JEE Main 2023 free online mock test series for exam preparation are available on the Vedantu website for free download. Practising these mock test papers of Physics, Chemistry and Maths prepared by expert teachers at Vedantu will help you to boost your confidence to face the JEE Main 2023 examination without any worries. The JEE Main test series for Physics, Chemistry and Maths that is based on the latest syllabus of JEE Main and also the Previous Year Question Papers.

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NTA is responsible for the release of the JEE Main 2023 January and April Session cut off score. The qualifying percentile score might remain the same for different categories. According to the latest trends, the expected cut off mark for JEE Main 2023 January and April Session is 50% for general category candidates, 45% for physically challenged candidates, and 40% for candidates from reserved categories. For the general category, JEE Main qualifying marks for 2021 ranged from 87.8992241 for general-category, while for OBC/SC/ST categories, they ranged from 68.0234447 for OBC, 46.8825338 for SC and 34.6728999 for ST category.

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NTA will release the JEE Main 2023 January and April sessions exam dates on the official website, i.e. {official-website}. Candidates can directly check the date sheet on the official website or https://jeemain.nta.nic.in/. JEE Main 2023 January and April sessions is expected to be held in February and May. Visit our website to keep updates of the respective important events of the national entrance exam.

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JEE Main 2023 state rank lists will be released by the state counselling committees for admissions to the 85% state quota and to all seats in IIT colleges. JEE Main 2023 state rank lists are based on the marks obtained in entrance exams. Candidates can check the JEE Main 2023 state rank list on the official website or on our site.

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Want to know which Engineering colleges in India accept the JEE Main 2023 scores for admission to Engineering? Find the list of Engineering colleges accepting JEE Main scores in India, compiled by Vedantu. There are 1622 Colleges that are accepting JEE Main. Also find more details on Fees, Ranking, Admission, and Placement.

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FAQ

1. What are the contributions of the chapter Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equation?

Every year, in JEE Main and other exams, at least 1 to 3 problems from this chapter appear, and the concept of this chapter can be used in many other chapters, such as functions and coordinate geometry. One of the most significant and fundamental chapters in the preparation of competitive admission tests is Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations.

2. How difficult is the chapter Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equation?

Complex numbers might be difficult for some pupils to comprehend and solve issues with at first. However, as you solve more problems involving complex numbers, you will get more comfortable with the subject. After that, the questions will seem simple to you. The Quadratic section is a little easier to understand and correlate than the difficult part; the notion of the Quadratic part is quite simple and logically easy to comprehend and correlate. You can refer to the NCERT solutions for Class 11 maths Chapter 5 and complex numbers and quadratic equations class 11 solutions available on Vedantu’s website for practice. Head over to our website and download the complex numbers and quadratic equations Class 11 PDF.

3. What is the meaning of modulus?

Modulus is the factor that is multiplied by a logarithm of a number to one base to get the logarithm of the number to a new base.

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