RNA Full Form

What is the Full Form of RNA?

The full form of RNA in biology is Ribonucleic acid. It is a polymeric molecule that plays a significant role in activities like coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Thus it helps to control the different events occurring inside the cell.

Additionally, the part of the cell having a RNA acronym also carries the genetic codes from the nucleus of the cell to the ribosomes that are present in the cytoplasm.

 Structure of RNA

The structure of RNA was described by R.W. Holley in 1965. According to him, the ribose sugar having the full form RNA has five carbons and one oxygen in its structure. However, the polymeric molecule is exceptionally prone to hydrolysis as it has a chemically reactive (-OH) group attached to the second carbon group in the RNA molecule. This has made DNA the preferred choice for carrying genetic information among most organisms.

Components of RNA

The components of the ribose sugar having the RNA full form are also quite interesting. The following structures make up the RNA of the cells:

  1. A nitrogenous base like adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil.

  2. A five-carbon sugar like the ribose.

  3. A phosphate group that is connected to the third position of one ribose and fifth position of the other ribose.

Types of RNA

The polymeric molecule having RNA abbreviation can be categorized into three types depending on their function. The three categories of RNA are the messenger RNA or m RNA, transfer RNA or t RNA, and Ribosomal RNA or r RNA.

Functions of RNA

There are several functions of the ribose sugar having RNA full form in English. Some of these are:

  1. It helps to create a sequence of amino acids similar to the ones that are present in the DNA.

  2. Thus it provides a template for protein synthesis by the ribosome.

  3. RNAs are also responsible for the transmission of amino acids to the ribosomes.

  4. Polymeric molecules having full form RNA also make up the structure of the ribosomes.

  5. Some RNAs are enzymic. These show enzymic activities under the proper conditions.

  6. Some RNAs also help in regulating various processes that are occurring inside cells.


It is understandable from the above sections that the full form of RNA in biology is Ribonucleic Acid. You can also get an idea about the structure, components, and types of RNA from the above sections. Additionally, you will also have a good idea about the various functions of RNA inside the cell. All these informations will, in turn, help you to understand the importance of the polymeric molecule.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Why is RNA called acid?

The part of the cell having RNA full form is called an acid because the phosphate group that is attached to the molecule is acidic. Additionally, the phosphodiester bond that is present can lose the proton quite quickly if it is brought close to a nucleophile group. This, in turn, hides the basic properties of the bases that are present in the molecule.

2. What are the bases present in RNA?

There are four main bases present in the ribose sugar having RNA full form in English. These are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Uracil. While Adenine and Guanine are known as Purine bases, the other two are known as Pyrimidine bases.

3. How many strands are there in the RNA molecule? 

The ribose sugar having full form RNA is double-stranded. This means that the RNA molecule has two strands similar to the DNA molecule that is present in the cells.