ABG Full Form


Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the person’s blood is termed as an Arterial Blood Gas. It is for the measurement of the acid-base (pH) level in the body, which is generally in balance when the body is healthy. The test tells the doctor about the working condition of the lung, kidneys and heart.

The oxygen is needed by every cell in the body to live. When the person inhales and exhales i.e. breathe in and breathe out, the lung pushes oxygen into the blood and removes carbon dioxide out. The process is termed as gas exchange and it provides the oxygen that is needed for survival. If an individual is having some troublesome breathing, the doctor may utilize an arterial blood gas (ABG) test to find out what the issue is.

Reason for Arterial Blood Gas

Doctors may request an arterial blood gas test to:

  • Check for extreme breathing and lung issues, for example, asthma, cystic fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 

  • Check how medicines for your lung issues are working. 

  • Check whether you need additional oxygen or other assistance with breathing. 

  • Check your pH level. Person can have an excess of acid in the body from kidney failure, a serious disease, explicit harmful ingestions, complexity of diabetes, or under-treated sleep break.

Process of Arterial Blood Gas

The sample of blood from a supply route is typically taken from within the wrist, it can likewise, be taken from a femoral vein or within the arm over the elbow wrinkle. Person is situated with his arm broadened and wrist laying on a little cushion. The wellbeing doctor drawing the blood may pivot persons' hand to and fro and feel for a heartbeat in the wrist.

A method called the Allen test is done to guarantee that bloodstream to hand is ordinary. An Arterial blood gas test won't be done on an arm utilized for dialysis or if there is a disease or aggravation in the region of the cut site.

The wellbeing doctor taking a sample of persons' blood does the following activities:

  • Clean the needle site with liquor.

  • Put the needle into the supply route.

  • Permit the blood to fill the syringe.

  • Put a bandage cushion or cotton ball over the needle site as the needle is detached.

  • Put a wrap over the cut site and apply firm weight for 5 to 10 minutes.

Parameters of Arterial Blood Gas

An Arterial Blood Gas Test Measures:

  • Sectional strength of oxygen: This estimates the strength of oxygen broke up in the blood and how well oxygen can move from the airspace of the lungs into the blood.

  • Sectional pressure of carbon dioxide: This estimates the weight of carbon dioxide broke down in the blood and how well carbon dioxide can move out of the body.

  • The pH estimates of hydrogen ions in the blood: The pH of blood is ordinarily somewhere in the range of 7.35 and 7.45. A pH of under 7.0 is called acid, and a pH more than 7.0 is called basic. So blood is somewhat soluble.

  • Bicarbonate: Bicarbonate is a chemical that shields the pH of blood from getting excessively acidic or excessively basic.

  • Oxygen content and oxygen saturation values: Oxygen content estimates the measure of oxygen in the blood. Oxygen saturation gauges the amount of haemoglobin in the red platelets carrying oxygen.


There is minimal possibility of an issue from having a blood test taken from a vein.

  • A person may get a little wound at the site. A person can bring down the opportunity of wounding by saving weight on the site for in any event 10 minutes after the needle is expelled.

  • Person may feel tipsy, blackout, dazed or sickened while the blood is being drawn from the supply route.

  • On uncommon events, the needle may harm a nerve or the corridor, making the supply route become blocked.

  • Even though issues are uncommon, be cautious with the arm or leg that had the blood draw. Try not to lift or convey objects for around 24 hours after having blood drawn from a course.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the use of Arterial Blood Gas?

An Arterial blood gas test measures the pH and the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from a duct. This test is utilized to check how well lungs can move oxygen into the blood and expel carbon dioxide from the blood.

2. What is Arterial Blood?

Arterial blood is the oxygenated blood in the circulatory framework found in the aspiratory vein, the left space of the heart, and in the supply routes. It is bright red, while venous blood is dull red. It is the lateral term to fermented blood.

3. What is the Impact when pH Level is too High in Blood?

An extension in antacid causes pH levels to rise. At the point when the degrees of acid in your blood is excessively high, it's called acidosis. At the point when your blood is excessively antacid, it is called alkalosis. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are because of an issue with the lungs.